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Table 2 Core constructs of normalisation process theory (Major themes) and study findings (Minor themes)

From: Embedding telephone therapy in statutory mental health services: a qualitative, theory-driven analysis

NPT construct Emergent study themes
Coherence: • T-CBT alters practitioner-client communication.
• T-CBT challenges risk management.
• T-CBT challenges collaboration.
• T-CBT may be more limited in content.
• T-CBT delivery demands different skills.
• Client diagnosis/case complexity may limit T-CBT utility.
• T-CBT is advantageous for patient access and reach.
Cognitive Participation: • T-CBT is a macro and meso level directive.
• Front line support for T-CBT may be lacking.
• T-CBT is enabled by professional autonomy.
• T-CBT is aligned with service efficiency.
• T-CBT acceptability is influenced by organisational culture.
Collective Action: • Confidence in T-CBT requires a mixed delivery model.
• T-CBT is delivered within a risk-minimisation framework.
• T-CBT implementation requires increased resourcing.
• T-CBT requires local protocol and policy development.
Reflexive Monitoring: • Local T-CBT champions exist.
• T-CBT supporters draw on experiential learning.
• T-CBT is acceptable in practice.
• T-CBT has proven client gains.
• Technical support will enhance information sharing.
• T-CBT requires dedicated training.