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Table 2 Demographics of validation study and depression status based on Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), n = 125

From: Detection of depression in low resource settings: validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and cultural concepts of distress in Nepal

  Total Sample (n = 125) CIDI Negative (n = 108) CIDI Positive (n = 17) Test-statistic Significance
Gender      
 Female 62 (50 %) 53 (49 %) 9 (53 %) Χ 2 = 0.09 p = 0.77
 Male 63 (50 %) 55 (51 %) 8 (47 %)   
Caste/Ethnicity      
 Brahman/Chhetri 34 (27 %) 28 (26 %) 6 (35 %) Χ 2 = 0.68 p = 0.71
 Dalit 15 (12 %) 13 (12 %) 2 (12 %)   
 Janajati 76 (61 %) 67 (62 %) 9 (53 %)   
Religion      
 Hindu 106 (85 %) 93 (86 %) 13 (76 %) Χ 2 = 5.90 p = 0.21
 Christian 8 (6 %) 7 (6 %) 1 (6 %)   
 Buddhist 7 (6 %) 4 (4 %) 3 (18 %)   
 Muslim 3 (2 %) 3 (3 %) 0   
 Other 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %) 0   
Education      
 No formal education 44 (35 %) 34 (32 %) 10 (59 %) Χ 2 = 5.40 p = 0.07
 Primary 33 (26 %) 29 (27 %) 4 (23 %)   
 Secondary or greater 48 (39 %) 45 (42 %) 3 (18 %)   
Psychiatric Care      
 No history 121 (97 %) 105 (97 %) 16 (94 %) Χ 2 = 0.46 p = 0.50
 Any history 4 (3 %) 3 (3 %) 1 (6 %)   
Age, mean (95 % CI) 36.59 (Std Err = 1.52) 36.01 (1.58) 40.29 (4.90) t = 0.83 p = 0.42
PHQ-9, mean (95 % CI) 7.90 (Std Err 0.497) 6.54 (0.41) 16.59 (1.14) t = 8.84 p < .001
Heart-Mind Problems 95 (76 %) 79 (73 %) 16 (94 %) Χ 2 = 3.54 P = .06
Brain-Mind Problems 12 (10 %) 4 (4 %) 8 (47 %) Χ 2 = 31.81 P < .001