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Table 4 Item-Level Comparisons for Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) Nepali Items, n = 125

From: Detection of depression in low resource settings: validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and cultural concepts of distress in Nepal

Item Non-depressed (CIDI negative) Depressed (CIDI positive) T-test Adjusted p-value* Corrected Item-Total Correlation Positive Likelihood Ratio
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev
1. Anhedonia 1.00 0.96 2.06 1.09 4.16 <.001 0.54 1.34
2. Depressed mood 0.85 0.84 2.24 0.97 6.18 <.001 0.68 1.49
3. Sleep difficulties 0.72 0.77 1.53 0.87 3.94 <.001 0.56 1.59
4. Fatigue 1.11 0.89 2.29 0.92 5.07 <.001 0.56 1.33
5. Appetite problems 0.73 0.87 1.53 1.00 3.44 0.01 0.37 1.62
6. Blaming oneself; damaging family’s social status 0.58 0.81 1.65 1.17 3.62 0.02 0.54 1.89
7. Concentration difficulties 0.66 0.71 2.12 1.05 5.52 <.001 0.68 1.72
8. Psychomotor agitation or retardation 0.55 0.76 1.65 0.99 5.24 <.001 0.55 2.03
9. Suicidality 0.32 0.59 1.53 1.18 4.14 0.01 0.57 3.07
  1. * p-value corrected for 9 tests using Bonferroni-type corrections. Adjusted p-values are only presented for those items with significant unadjusted p-values