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Table 1 Results of four completed RCTs on IMR (by studya,b)

From: Effectiveness of illness management and recovery (IMR) in the Netherlands: a randomised clinical trial

  Hasson-Ohayon et al. 2007 [17] Levitt et al. 2009 [18] Färdig et al. 2011 [16] Salyers et al. 2014 [15]
Consumer report     
 IMR Scale. NS .36 .29 NS
 Patient activation     NS
 Recovery    NS NS
 Hope     NS
 Coping NS   .14–.19c  
 Knowledge about mental illness .14d    
 Psychiatric symptoms   NS   
 Quality of life, community functioning, and social support NS   NS  
 Medication adherence     NS
Clinician report     
 IMR Scale .28 .39 .34  
 Quality of life, community functioning, and social support   .52   
 Substance abuse   NS   
Observer-rated psychiatric symptoms   −.20 .38 NS
Interviewer−rated Quality of Life     NS
Objective outcome     
 Hospitalizations and emergency NS NS NS NS
 Employment   NS   
 Medication dosage    NS  
Inpatient admission     NS
Inpatient psychiatric admission     NS
Length of inpatient stay     NS
Length of inpatient psychiatric stay     NS
  1. aThe results of the studies of Hasson-Ohayon et al. [17], Levitt et al. [18], Färdig et al. [16] and notes b, c and d are taken from McGuire et al. [14]
  2. bResults reflect comparisons from baseline to the longest follow-up period. Studies reported only one scale for each category. Only significant (p,.05) effect sizes (Cohen’s d) are reported. Effect sizes for Färdig et al. [16] are reported as η2. A blank cell indicates that the variable was not measured. NS: not significant
  3. c Range from the four of eight subscales of the Ways of Coping Scale with significant results
  4. d Knowledge and goals subscale of the consumer-reported IMR Scale