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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the review

From: Is adherence therapy an effective adjunct treatment for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Study location Sample and setting Interventions Total participants N analysed at follow-up (intervention/control) Baseline characteristics (intervention/control) Number and duration of AT sessions Follow up (attrition rate intervention/control)
Anderson et al. (2010) [19] United States Outpatients; diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder aged >18 AT + TAU/TAU (day treatment, case management, employment placement, medication monitoring and individual counselling) N = 23 (10/13) Mean age 29 (13), range 21–57 in AT/31–62 years in TAU; 79 % male Not reported Within several days of completion (17 %/7 %)
Chien et al. (2015) [18] Hong Kong Outpatients; diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder within past 5 years; poor adherence (DAI score <11), recent non-adherence, aged 18–64 AT + TAU/TAU (routine treatment: psychiatric consultations at the two outpatient clinics, home visits by a community psychiatric nurse, brief education on psychiatric treatment and referrals to healthcare and welfare services) N = 110 (54/56) Mean age 29.21 (9.64) in AT/28.13 (8.96) in TAU; 51 % male in AT/53 % male in TAU Mean n of AT sessions 6.9 (1.0) 6 months (3.5 %)
Gray et al. (2006) [5] Amsterdam, Leipzig, London and Verona Inpatients and community setting; diagnosis of schizophrenia; evidence of clinical instability in previous year; AT + TAU/TAU + didactic health education N = 371 (175/196) Mean age 40.9 years (11.7) in AT/42.1 (11.4) years in TAU; 60 % male Mean n of sessions 7 (1.96) in AT/7 (2.49) in TAU; mean duration 36 (12.1) min in AT/30 (9.9) min in TAU 52 weeks (12.7 %/5.4 %)
Maneesakorn et al. (2007) [21] Chiang Mai, Thailand Inpatients with community follow up; diagnosis of schizophrenia, aged >20 AT + TAU/TAU (standard care: medication treatment, occupational therapy, group counseling and recreational therapy) N = 28 (14/14) Mean age 38.7 (12.8) years in AT/43 (6.5) years in TAU; 81 % male in AT/61 % male in TAU All (14) received 8 sessions of AT; mean duration 43.68 (6.24) mina 9 weeks (12.5 %/12.5 %)
Schulz et al. (2013) [20] Germany: Bielefeld, Warstein, Lippstadt; Switzerland: Bern Inpatients; aged >18, schizophrenic disorder and inpatient in participating ward AT+ TAU/TAU (based on national guidelines; including medication, psychotherapy, occupational therapy and psycho-education) N = 123 (72/51) Mean age 35 (10) years; 60 % male in AT/56 % male in TAU Mean number of sessions 7.24 (1.09; 5–9); mean duration of sessions 42 min (12.96; 17–92 min) 12 weeks
Von Bormann et al. (2015) Thailand Inpatients due to psychiatric exacerbation; aged >20, schizophrenia diagnosis AT + TAU/TAU (medication, vocational and recreational therapy and outreach community psychiatric support) N = 70 (38/32) Mean age 38 (11) years in AT/40 (9) years in TAU; 71 % male in AT/78 % male in TAU All received 8 sessions of AT; mean duration 41 (8.0) min 26 weeks
Total     N = 725 (363/362)    
  1. Abbreviations: N number of participants, AT adherence therapy, TAU treatment as usual, DAI Hogan drug attitude inventor
  2. areported in Maneesakorn [39], a PhD thesis. Maneesakorn et al. [21] and Maneesakorn [39] reported the findings of the same study and are included as a single study in the review