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Table 3 Demographics and clinical characteristics of the interviewed sample and the PTSD cases identified by DSM-IV, ICD-10 and the proposed ICD-11 two- and three factor models

From: An evaluation of ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in two samples of adolescents and young adults exposed to mass shootings: factor analysis and comparisons to ICD-10 and DSM-IV

   PTSD cases by diagnostic system
  WHOLE SAMPLE DSM-IV n = 43 (18.9 %)   ICD-10 n = 85 (37.3 %)   Two-factor ICD-11 n = 56 (24.6 %)   Three-factor ICD-11 n = 51 (22.4 %)  
  N = 228   χ 2/Fa   χ 2/Fa   χ 2/Fa   χ 2/Fa
Sex, n (%)    7.30**   10.65**   7.04**   7.59**
 Male 44 (19.3) 2 (4.7)   7 (8.2)   4 (7.1)   3 (5.9)  
 Female 184 (80.7) 41 (95.3)   78 (91.8)   52 (92.9)   48 (94.1)  
Age, M (SD) 17.6 (3.7) 17.2 (3.8) .48 17.6 (3.9) .04 17.6 (3.8) .00 17.3 (3.8) .35
 Range 12–30 years          
Study group, n (%)    .02   .79   .58   .01
 Jokela 124 (54.4) 23 (53.5)   43 (50.6)   28 (50.0)   28 (54.9)  
 Kauhajoki 104 (45.6) 20 (46.5)   42 (49.4)   28 (50.0)   23 (45.1)  
Exposure, n (%)    20.40***   16.51**   19.89**   20.93***
 Mild-to-moderate 55 (24.1) 5 (11.6)   10 (11.8)   4 (7.1)   3 (5.9)  
 Significant 124 (54.4) 18 (41.9)   48 (56.5)   30 (53.6)   27 (52.9)  
 Severe-to-extreme 49 (21.5) 20 (46.5)   27 (31.8)   22 (39.3)   21 (41.2)  
GAS, M (SD) 75.9 (11.1) 64.1 (11.6) 78.96*** 69.1 (11.8) 65.18*** 67.2 (12.0) 53.86*** 66.8 (11.8) 51.84***
GHQ-12, M (SD)b 3.3 (3.3) 6.5 (3.5) 62.39*** 4.7 (3.6) 29.00*** 6.1 (3.4) 66.64*** 5.9 (3.5) 46.35***
IES-22, M (SD)b 29.2 (23.7) 53.4 (25.0) 68.60*** 44.8 (24.9) 73.37*** 53.1 (22.2) 104.83*** 53.0 (23.0) 85.04***
Depression, n (%) 20 (8.8) 8 (18.6) 6.40* 15 (17.6) 13.34*** 11 (19.6) 10.96** 10 (19.6) 9.64**
Anxiety disorder, n (%) 23 (10.1) 7 (16.3) 2.24 12 (14.1) 2.43 7 (12.5) .48 6 (11.8) .20
Alcohol problem use, n (%) 29 (12.8) 6 (14.0) .07 10 (11.8) .13 8 (14.5) .20 8 (15.7) .50
  1. aPTSD vs. no PTSD within the diagnostic classification system
  2. breported four months after the incident
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001