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Table 1 Demographic data for case and noncase groups

From: Heart rate variability and the relationship between trauma exposure age, and psychopathology in a post-conflict setting

  Cases Noncases  
n % n % χ2
Number 45   29   
Diagnoses (n)      
 PTSD only 0 0.0 %    
 IED only 26 57.8 %    
 MDE only 4 8.9 %    
 Comorbid PTSD and IED 2 4.4 %    
 Comorbid PTSD and MDE 3 6.7 %    
 Comorbid IED and MDE 2 4.4 %    
 Comorbid PTSD, IED and MDE 8 17.8 %    
Sex (n)      <0.01
 Males 17 37.8 % 11 37.9 %  
 Females 28 62.2 % 18 62.1 %  
Marital status (%): Case group n = 44 a     0.08
 Married 31 70.5 % 20 69.0 %  
 Widowed 5 11.4 % 3 10.3 %  
 Single/Never married 8 18.2 % 6 20.7 %  
Education (n): Case group n = 44 a      5.51
 Completed university degree 2 4.5 % 3 10.3 %  
 Completed secondary school 5 11.4 % 6 20.7 %  
 Completed primary school 7 15.9 % 6 20.7 %  
 Minimal formal education 30 68.2 % 14 48.3 %  
Employment (n): Case group n = 44 a     13.05**
 Paid employment 11 25.0 % 12 41.4 %  
 Unemployed 7 15.9 % 12 41.4 %  
 Subsistence living or home duties 26 59.1 % 5 17.2 %  
Smoking history (n): Case group n = 44 a     1.27
 Current 12 27.3 % 8 27.6 %  
 Past smoker 4 9.1 % 5 17.2 %  
 Never 28 63.6 % 16 55.2 %  
  1. Chi-squared tests: *p < .05; ** p < .01
  2. aData relating to marital status, education, employment and smoking history missing from one clinical case