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Table 6 Neurophysiological studies evaluating the five functional domains in young people (12-30 yrs) with a mood and/or anxiety disorder

From: The underlying neurobiology of key functional domains in young people with mood and anxiety disorders: a systematic review

Outcome measure Study Age (mean ± SD) Sample (N) Aims Key measures Key findings
Social and economic participation [190] MHP: 22.1 ± 4.0 BPD (18) Determine the longitudinal relationship between MMN/P3a and functional outcomes in patients. Nα: MMN BPD & PSD: ↑ BL MMN ~ ↑ social and economic participation at FUP
PSD (13) Functional: SOFAS, WHO-DAS-II
Physical health [191]* MDD: 17.1 ± 0.6 MDD (8F) Investigate the effect of nicotine on resting EEG activity and affect. Nα: EEG MDD: ↓ rPR theta & ↓ smoking withdrawal, craving and physical symptoms ~ acute nicotine administration.
Functional: HONC
Suicide and self-harm [122] SA: 29.5 ± 13.3, HC: 34 ± 13.3 SA (24M; 16F) Investigate the trait predisposing to DSH by examining EEG and peripheral monoamine activity. Nα: EEG and blood samples SA: ↓ CNV and whole blood 5-HT ~ multiple episodes of self-harm.
HC (13M; 14F) Functional: HLS, MADRS, SIS
  [123] SA: 14 (12 – 17yrs) SA (16F) Examine EEG alpha asymmetry among high-risk adolescents Nα: EEG alpha asymmetry SA: ↑ posterior alpha asymmetry ~ suicidal intent (not depression severity)
HC: 14 (12 – 17yrs) HC (22F) Functional: HASS, SIS
  [124] rMDD + CSA: 31.60 ± 10.98 rMDD + CSA (15F) Examine the association between CSA, MDD and maladaptive behaviour. Nα: EEG rMDD + CSA: ↑ subgenual ACC activation during reward based decision making, ↓ reaction time during incentive-based trials ~ ↑ frequency of self harm/suicidal behaviours.
rMDD: 24.81 ± 3.94 rMDD: (16F) Functional: YRBS (adult version)
HC: 30.44 ± 10.78 HC (18F)
Alcohol and substance use [192] BPD-L: 21.8 ± 3.9 BPD-L (5M; 11F) Investigate the effects of alcohol use on MMN in BP. Nα: MMN BPD-H: ↓ temporal MMN
BPD-H: 22.6 ± 3.4 BPD-H (9M; 17F) Functional: AUDIT
HC-L: 22.4 ± 2.6 HC-L (6M; 14F)
HC-H: 23.4 ± 3.2 HC-H (6M; 8F)
  [193] AD: 24 ± 3.77 AD (44M; 47F) Explore the use of a startle paradigm and its association with alcohol use. Nα: Startle, ERP AD: ↑ facilitation, ↓ inhibition of the N4S component by pre pulse stimuli.
BD: 24.6 ± 5.76 BD (23M; 18F) Functional: SSAGA, FHAM
AFF: 22.9 ± 3.94 AFF (32M; 65F)
DD: 23.5 ± 3.17 DD (51M; 61F)
Clinical syndrome [128] ANX : 12.9 ± 2.6 ANX (7M; 13F) Examine the relationship between ASR, symptom reduction and treatment success. Nα: Multiple muscle ASR ANX: ↓ in multiple muscle ASR ~ ↓ in anxiety symptoms.
HC: 12.0 ± 2.5 HC (10M; 15F) Clinical: ADIS-C/P, SCAS
ANX: ↑ multiple muscle ASR predicted CBT treatment response
  [133] OCD: 13.9 ± 2.4 OCD (18M; 22F) Assess ERN as a biomarker for OCD Nα: ERN OCD & SIB: ↑ ERN at Cz (independent of symptom severity, current diagnostic status and treatment effects).
SIB: 13.9 ± 2.4 SIB (13M; 6F) Clinical: Y-BOCS, CBCL, MASC, CDI
HC: 13.8 ± 2.3 HC (20M; 20F)
  [134] ANX: 11.8 ± 2.3 ANX (3M; 10F) Demonstrate ERN amplitude is increased in young anxiety patients. Nα: ERN ANX & OCD: ↑ ERN at Cz (independent of symptom severity, current diagnostic status and treatment effects).
OCD: 12.7 ± 2.2 OCD (8M; 18F) Clinical: Y-BOCS, CBCL, MASC, CDI
HC: 12.4 ± 2.2 HC (14M; 13F)
  [194] RES: 14.1 ± 2.8 RES (2M; 6F) Examine the relationship between TMS with subsequent treatment response Nα: TMS NoRES: ↑ deficits in pre-treatment LICI
NoRES: 13.1 ± 1.6 NoRES (5M; 3F) Clinical: CDRS-R, QIDS, CGI-severity scale
  [195] HC: 25.54 ± 3.41 HC (28M; 16F) Investigate the intensity evaluation of social stimuli in depression Nα: ERP (N170, P1, P2) MDD: ↑ intensity scores for sad faces compared with HC, ↑ reaction times for all faces and ↑ P1 & P2 amplitude for sad faces
DEP: 25.96 ± 4.58 DEP (9M; 15F) Clinical: SCID, BDI, HDRS, BAI
MDD: 26.58 ± 4.16 MDD (10M; 14F)
DEP: ↓ scores for happy and neutral faces, ↑ reactions times and ↑ P1 & P2 amplitude for happy faces compared to sad faces.
  [196] HC: 27.7 ± 7.0 HC (14M; 12F) Assess brain function impairments in bipolar patients. Nα: Resting EEG BPD: ↑ power in all wave bands. Marked increases in right temporal theta and left occipital beta.
BPD: 30.7 ± 6.1 BPD (10M; 19F) Clinical: BDI
  [135] OCD: 13.3 ± 2.8, OCD (13M; 5F) Examine ERN in paediatric patients with OCD Nα: ERN OCD: ↑ ERN pre-treatment and after treatment. No relationship with symptom severity or changes in symptom severity
HC: 11.9 ± 2.6 HC (8M; 10F) Clinical : Y-BOCS
  [197] HC: 17 ± 1.6 HC (43F) Evaluate the effects of depression and a family history of alcohol or substance dependence on P300. Nα: ERP (P300) DD: ↓ P300 amplitude. No effect of family history of alcohol or drug dependence.
HC-FHA: 16.5 ± 1.3 HC-FHA (31F) Clinical: SSAGA, MAST, PANAS
HC-FHD: 16.1 ± 1.5 HC-FHD (27F)
DEP: 17.2 ± 1.4 DD (12F)
DEP-FHA: 17.3 ± 1.5 DD-FHA (9F)
DEP-FHD: 16.3 ± 1.3 DD-FHD (8F)
  [191]* MDD: 17.1 ± 0.6 MDD (8F) Investigate the effect of acute nicotine administration on resting EEG activity and affect Nα: EEG MDD: Nicotine ↓ theta amplitude in right parietal region. No associations with mood.
Clinical: BDI, HONC, PANAS
  [129] MDD: 30.4 ± 11.8 MDD (28M; 23F) Assess the utility of baseline LDAEP predicting response to antidepressants. Nα: LDAEP MDD: steep N1 sLORETA-LDAEP at BL ~ treatment response. ↑ P2 sLORETA-LDAEP slope at week 1 ~ treatment response.
Clinical: HDRS, MADRS
  [167]* OCD: 27 ± 9.8 OCD (15M; 16F) Characterize the cognitive functions of the patients with OCD by utilizing ERPs and neuropsychological tests Nα: ERP (P300) OCD: ↓ P300 duration. ↓ stroop duration ~ ↑ P300 amplitude in occipital, parietal and temporal anterior regions.
HC: 27.4 ± 9.1 HC (14M; 16F) Clinical: HDRS
  [52]* OCD: 24.06 ± 5 OCD (21M; 9F) Assess the relationship between cognitive dysfunction, clinical status and severity in OCD. Nα: ERP (N100, P200, N200, P300) OCD: ↑ P200 amplitude, unrelated to neither severity nor chronicity of illness. ↓ N200 amplitude (worsens with ↑ severity). ↓ N100 and P200 ~ ↑ chronicity
HC: Matched HC (21M; 9F)
Clinical: YBOCS
  [136] OCD-U: 25 ± 8.0 OCD-U (9M; 10F) Examine the effects of chronic medication on error responses in OCD. Nα: ERN OCD: ↑ ERN, irrespective of medication use.
OCD-M: 30.8 ± 9.5 OCD-M (9M; 10F) Clinical: HDRS, HAMA, YBOCS
PC-M: 31.7 ± 10.6 PC-M (8M; 11F) HC & PC: ↑ anxiety and depression ~ ↑ ERN amplitude
HC: 25.3 ± 7.5 HC (11M; 10F)
  [127] DEP: 20.9 ± 0.55 DEP (515) Examine whether recurrent major depression is associated with abnormal startle Nα: ASR DEP: ↑ ASR was associated with multiple (more than 1) depressive episode.
Clinical: SCID
  1. Note. Sample : AFF affective disorder (not specified), AD alcohol dependence, ANX anxiety disorder, BD behavioural disorder, BPD bipolar disorder, BPD-L bipolar disorder with low alcohol use, BPD-H bipolar disorder with high alcohol use, DD depressive disorder, DD-FHA depressive disorder with family history of alcohol dependence, DD-FHD depressive disorder with family history of drug dependence, DrDep drug dependence, HC healthy controls, HC-FHA healthy control with family history of alcohol dependence, HC-FHD healthy control with family history of drug dependence, HC-L health control with low alcohol use, HC-H healthy control with high alcohol use, MDD major depression disorder, MHP mental health patients (mixed diagnosis sample), NoRES treatment non responders, OCD obsessive compulsive disorder, OCD-M obsessive compulsive disorder patient medicated, OCD-U obsessive compulsive disorder patients unmedicated, PC-M psychiatric control patient medicated, PSD psychotic spectrum disorder, RES treatment responders, rMDD remitted major depression disorder, rMDD+CSA remitted major depression disorder with childhood sexual abuse history, SA suicide attempters, SIB suicide ideation behaviour
  2. Measures : ADIS-C/P anxiety disorders interview schedule for children, ASR auditory startle reflex, AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, BAI beck anxiety inventory, BDI beck depression inventory, CBCL child behaviour checklist, CDI children’s depression inventory, CDRS children’s depression rating scale, CGI clinical global impression scale, EEG electroencephalography, ERP event related potential, ERN event related negativity, FHAM family history assessment module, HAMA Hamilton anxiety rating scale, HASS Harkavy Asnis suicide scale, HDRS Hamilton depression rating scale, HLS beck hopelessness scale, HONC hooked on nicotine checklist, LDAEP loudness dependant auditory evoked potential, MASC multidimensional anxiety scale for children, MADRS Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale, MMN mismatch negativity, MAST Michigan Alco- holism Screening Test, PANAS positive and negative affect scale, QIDS quick inventory of depressive symptomatology, SCID structured clinical interview for DSM, SCAS Spence children’s anxiety scale, SIS suicide intent scale, SOFAS social and occupational functioning assessment scale, SSAGA semi-structured assessment for the genetics of alcoholism, TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation, WHO-DAS-II World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Scale II, Y-BOCS, Yale–Brown obsessive-compulsive scale, YRBS youth risk behaviour survey
  3. Findings : ↑ = Increased, Improved or Higher, ↓ = Decreased, Reduced or Lower, ~ = ‘is associated with’, 5-HT serotonin, BL baseline, CBT cognitive behaviour therapy, CNV contingent negative variation, FUP follow-up, N4S late wave frontal ERP component responses, rPR right Parietal Region, RT reaction time
  4. * indicates that the study features more than once in the data synthesis