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Table 7 Metabolic studies evaluating the five functional domains in young people (12-30 yrs) with a mood and/or anxiety disorder

From: The underlying neurobiology of key functional domains in young people with mood and anxiety disorders: a systematic review

Outcome measure Study Age (mean ± SD) Sample (N) Aims Key measures Key findings
Social and participation [140]* MHP: 28.74 ± 10.38 MHP (38M; 28F) Identify changes in the rates of obesity in never-treated patients with mood disorder over 4 years of follow-up. Metabolic: BMI MHP: ↑ BMI ~ ↑ social and economic participation
(40 MDD, 26 BPD) Functional: GAF
Physical health [198] FH+: 18.9 ± 1.0 FH+ (32M, 53F) Determine whether young people with a family history of depression have altered metabolic markers. Metabolic/Functional: glucose, lipids and high-sensitivity CRP. BP, arterial stiffness and waking cortisol concentration. FH+: ↑ peripheral and central BP, arterial stiffness and ↓ insulin sensitivity
HC: 19.1 ± 0.1 HC (27M; 42F)
Suicide and self-harm [138] SUC: 15.93 ± 1.48 SUC (15M; 32F) Examine the relationship between serum cholesterol levels and suicidal behaviours Metabolic: blood serum samples SUC: ↑ cholesterol ~ current suicide behaviour (within the SUC group, ↑ serum cholesterol ~ ↓ severity of SUC, but not ~ symptom severity)
PC: 16.22 ± 1.95 PC (58M; 47F) Functional: SPI
   PD: 25.3 ± 3.3 PD (37M; 35F) Elucidate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation and serum lipid levels. Metabolic: BMI, blood serum samples PD: ↓ HDL-C and ↑ VLDL-C ~ higher suicide ideation
Functional: SSI
  [137] SA: 15.44 ± 1.99 SA (17M; 49F) Explore the associations between cholesterol and suicidal behaviour Metabolic: blood serum samples SA: ↓ cholesterol levels ~ attempted suicide history
PC: 15.19 ± 1.68 PC (15M; 39F) Functional: hospital records
  [199] SA: 16.8 SEM = .74 SA (3M; 6F) Investigate platelet PBR density in suicidal teens Metabolic: blood serum samples SA: ↓ platelet PBR density
PC: 16.5 SEM = .5 PC (7M; 3F) Functional: hospital records, SPI, SRS
  [155] SA: 15.87 ± 1.56 SA(10M; 25F) Evaluate the relationship between plasma serotonin levels and psychometric measures in suicidal adolescents Metabolic: blood serum samples SA: ↓ plasma 5-HT level ~ ↑ suicidality. (5-HT did not discriminate between the psychiatric diagnostic categories)
PC: 16.29 1.81 PC (19M; 11F) Functional: hospital records, SPI
ER: 16.91 2.47 ER (13M; 38F)
HC: 15.26 1.41 HC (45M; 50F)
Alcohol and substance use [200] BPD-O: 12.9 ± 3.1 BPD-O (77M; 68F) Investigate obesity in paediatric bipolar patients and notable correlates Metabolic: BMI BPD: SUD ~ 2.8 fold increased prevalence of BPD-OB.
BPD-NO: 13.3 ± 3.0 BPD-NO (108M; 95F) Functional: K-SADS-P
Clinical syndrome [162] MDD: 24.1 ± 3.2 MDD (45M; 44F) Examine the association between MDD in childhood and BMI in adulthood Metabolic: BMI MDD: ↑ BMI at FUP (in adulthood)
HC: 22.2 ± 2.9 HC (43M; 45F) Clinical: KSADS,
  [140]* MHP: 28.74 ± 10.38 MHP (38M; 28F) Identify changes in the rates of obesity in never-treated patients with mood disorder over 4 years of follow-up. Metabolic: BMI MHP: clinical improvement ~ ↑ BMI
(40 MDD, 26 BPD) Clinical: HAMD
  1. Note. Sample : BPD bipolar disorder, BPD-O bipolar disorder with obesity, BPD-NO bipolar disorder without obesity, ER emergency room patients admitted for suicide attempt, HC healthy controls, FH+ family history of depression, MDD major depression disorder, MHP mental health patients (mixed diagnosis sample), PC psychiatric control (i.e. psychiatric diagnosis but no suicide attempt), PD panic disorder, SA suicide attempters, SUC suicidal tendencies (either ideation, threat or attempt)
  2. Measures : BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CRP C-reactive protein, GAF global assessment of functioning, HDRS Hamilton depression rating scale, K-SADS schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school age children, SPI suicide potential interview, SRS suicide risk scale, SSI scale of suicide ideation
  3. Findings : ↑ = Increased, Improved or Higher, ↓ = Decreased, Reduced or Lower, ~ = ‘is associated with’, 5-HT serotonin, FUP follow-up, PBR peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors
  4. * indicates that the study features more than once in the data synthesis