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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the patients. Characteristics of the patients included in the second phase (ESS ≥ 11 and/or cataplexy) are summarized in the following table

From: Exploring the presence of narcolepsy in patients with schizophrenia

  Patients (n = 24)
Age (years) 39.7 ± 10.3 (range 21–57)
Age of onset psychiatric disorder (years) 22.8 ± 7.5 (range, 12–44)
Male gender (%) 54.2
Body Mass Index (n) 32.8 ± 5.6 (range, 20–43.7)
Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (n) 11.4 ± 4.1 (range, 2–18)
Duration of EDS (years) 16.8 ± 14.2 (range, 1–50)
Possible cataplexy (n/%) 6 (25)
Hypnagogic/hypnopompic
Hallucinations (n/%)
5 (20.8)
Sleep paralysis (n/%) 5 (20.8)
Estimated Nocturnal sleep amount (hours) 9.7 ± 2 (range, 5–13.5)
(14 patients slept ≥ 10 h/night)
Nocturnal sleep fragmentation (≥2 awakenings/night) (%) 1 (4.1)
Refreshing short naps (%) 0 (0)
Circadian rhythm disorder 1 patient had advanced sleep phase disorder
4 patients had delayed sleep phase disorder
Snorers (n/%) 12 (50)
Witnessed apneas (n/%) 6 (25)
Previous diagnosis of OSAS (n/%) 1 (4.1)
Neuroleptic treatment (%) 100
Benzodiazepine treatment (%) 37.5
Antidepressant treatment (%) 45.8
Antiepileptic treatment (%) 54.2
  1. EDS Excessive daytime sleepiness, OSAS Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome