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Table 4 Perceived stress in the general population according to demographic characteristics

From: The German version of the Perceived Stress Scale – psychometric characteristics in a representative German community sample

  Total sample (N = 2463) Women (n = 1315) Men (n = 1148) η2/sign.a
  M SD M SD M SD  
Age        .01*
 (A) 14-19 yrs. 14.05 6.54 15.02 5.93 13.42 6.88  
 (B) 20-39 yrs. 12.74 6.67 13.34 6.75 12.01 6.51  
 (C) 40-59 yrs. 12.82 6.42 12.99 6.48 12.61 6.35  
 (D) ≥ 60 yrs. 11.94 6.14 12.82 6.08 10.92 6.06  
Marital status        .01*
 (A) unmarried 13.41 6.70 14.40 6.64 12.58 6.65  
 (B) married 12.07 5.90 12.57 5.77 11.60 6.02  
 (C) divorced 13.09 6.84 13.33 6.90 12.77 6.78  
 (D) widowed 12.93 6.36 12.86 6.35 13.18 6.45  
Children        
 yes 12.88 6.21 13.07 6.08 12.62 6.39  
 no 12.48 6.49 13.11 6.54 11.80 3.37  
Migration        
 yes 13.62 6.50 13.92 6.43 13.27 6.64  
 no 12.54 6.42 13.07 6.42 11.93 6.37  
Religion        .01*
 (A) Christian 12.51 6.54 13.09 6.52 11.79 6.05  
 (B) Muslim 15.40 6.23 16.00 5.74 14.97 6.61  
 (C) other 12.51 5.79 12.97 6.22 11.42 4.62  
 (D) no religion 12.48 6.11 12.89 6.09 12.09 6.10  
Education        .01*
 (A) <10th grade 12.72 6.48 13.17 6.44 12.24 6.50  
 (B) completed 10th grade 12.50 6.37 12.98 6.43 11.82 6.22  
 (C) high school 12.60 6.37 13.16 6.68 12.01 6.00  
 (D) college/university 11.16 5.79 11.97 5.61 10.44 5.87  
 (E) without qualification 15.68 7.22 16.02 6.60 15.26 8.00  
Employment        .02*
 (A) Employed 12.32 6.30 12.79 6.34 11.83 6.22  
 (B) Student/training 13.72 6.52 15.13 6.37 12.58 6.45  
 (C) Unemployed 15.39 7.42 15.05 7.54 15.73 7.32  
 (D) Retired 12.14 6.28 13.01 6.28 11.13 6.13  
 (E) Household 12.59 6.26 12.53 6.27 13.18 6.40  
Incomeb        .02*
 (A) ≤ 750 13.83 6.54 13.47 6.33 15.04 7.11  
 (B) 751-1250 13.33 6.64 13.60 6.65 12.86 6.60  
 (C) 1251-2000 11.68 6.21 12.11 6.25 11.31 6.16  
 (D) 2001-3500 11.77 6.14 13.26 5.84 11.26 6.16  
 (E) > 3500 11.36 5.64 13.79 6.94 10.59 5.01  
  1. * = p < .01; η2 = effect size; aANOVA main effects; significant Scheffé-tests: age: (A) > (D), (C) > (D); marital status: (A), (C) > (B); religion: (B) > (A), (D); education: (E) > (A), (B), (C), (D); (A) > (D); employment: (C) > (A), (D), (E);; income: (A) > (C), (D); (B) > (C), (D); b€/month per person