Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the sample according to cluster analysis-defined delirium and nondelirium status

From: Delirium diagnosis defined by cluster analysis of symptoms versus diagnosis by DSM and ICD criteria: diagnostic accuracy study

Variable Whole sample Dementia Subsample (S-IQCODE >85)
Nondelirium (n = 151) Delirium (n = 49) Nondelirium (n = 76) Delirium (n = 41)
Age (years) 77.46 ± 10.30 81.06 ± 8.08 79.62 ± 7.48 81.12 ± 8.22
Education (years) 5.14 ± 4.21 4.61 ± 3.55 3.42 ± 3.32 4.29 ± 3.64
Charlson comorbidity score 1.81 ± 1.54 2.18 ± 1.18 2.07 ± 1.56 2.24 ± 1.18
Sex (%):
 Men 68 (45.0) 29 (59.2) 26 (34.2) 26 (63.4)
 Women 83 (55.0) 20 (40.8) 50 (65.8) 15 (36.6)
Occupational status (%)
 Employed / Homemaker 6 (4.0) 2 (4.1) 2 (2.6) 1 (2.4)
 Retired / Pensioner 143 (94.7) 47 (95.9) 74 (97.4) 40 (97.6)
 Unemployed 2 (1.3) - - -
Possible dementia1 (%) 76 (50.3) 41 (83.7) N/A N/A
Medications used2 (%):
 Anticholinergics 60 (39.7) 23 (46.9) 30 (39.5) 20 (48.8)
 Typical antipsychotics 7 (4.6) 5 (10.2) 4 (5.3) 3 (7.3)
 Atypical antipsychotics 45 (29.8) 36 (73.5) 29 (38.2) 32 (78.0)
 Benzodiazepines 64 (42.4) 20 (40.8) 38 (50.0) 15 (36.6)
 Cognitive enhancers 10 (6.6) 5 (10.2) 9 (11.8) 5 (12.2)
Five most common main diagnoses on admission (%)
 Dementia 14 (9.3) 17 (34.7) 14 (18.4) 17 (41.5)
 Convalescence for fracture:
  Hip / Femur fracture 31 (20.5) 5 (10.2) 15 (19.7) 4 (9.8)
  Other types 19 (12.6) 3 (6.1) 7 (9.2) 1 (2.4)
 Psychiatric diagnosis 17 (11.3) - 11 (14.5) -
 Cerebrovascular disease 15 (9.9) 7 (14.3) 7 (9.2) 5 (12.2)
 Systemic infection 9 (6.0) 8 (16.3) 5 (6.6) 8 (19.5)
Previous diagnosis of delirium3 18 (11.9) 15 (30.6) 12 (15.8) 13 (31.7)
DRS-R98 Severity Score 5.60 ± 3.82 21.29 ± 4.50 7.47 ± 3.30 21.63 ± 4.51
DRS-R98 Total Score 6.67 ± 5.00 25.99 ± 4.90 8.87 ± 4.37 25.76 ± 5.00
DSM-III-R diagnoses (%) 16 (10.6) 40 (81.6) 10 (13.1) 32 (78.0)
DSM-IV diagnoses (%) 14 (9.3) 35 (71.4) 7 (9.2) 27 (65.8)
DSM-5 diagnoses (%) 18 (11.9) 36 (73.5) 10 (13.1) 28 (68.3)
ICD-10 diagnoses (%) 6 (4.0) 26 (53.1) 5 (6.6) 20 (48.8)
  1. Data are shown as means ± SD unless denoted by frequencies, which are expressed as n (%). Bolded values reached significance at p < 0.05 for differences between delirium and nondelirium groups
  2. N/A Not Applicable
  3. 1Based on S-IQCODE >85
  4. 2During 24 h before research evaluation
  5. 3As reported in clinical records