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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of demographic data and health behaviour

From: Medical students’ health behaviour and self-reported mental health status by their country of origin: a cross-sectional study

Variables Total Mediterranean Scandinavian Israel Iran Hungary Group differences
Gender N (%) Males 267 (43.9) 37 (54.4) 54 (40.9) 65 (66.3) 23 (54.8) 88 (32.8) χ2 (4) = 38.874*** (Cramer’s V = 0.253*)
Females 341 (56.1) 31 (45.6) 78 (59.1) 33 (33.7) 19 (45.2) 180 (67.2)
Age (unit: years) Mean (SD) 24.1 (2.42) 22.9b,c,d (1.94) 24.8a,c,e (2.21) 26.3a,b,e (1.94) 26.1a,e (3.06) 22.8b,c,d (1.46) H(4) = 233.429*** (η2 = 0.356)
Diet N (%) Unhealthy 200 (33.2) 24 (36.4) 39 (28.1) 35 (37.2) 11 (25.0) 91 (35.0) χ2 (8) = 8.416 (Cramer’s V = 0.084)
Average 311 (51.6) 33 (50.0) 71 (51.1) 45 (47.9) 28 (63.6) 134 (51.5)
Healthy 92 (15.3) 9 (13.6) 29 (20.9) 14 (14.9) 5 (11.4) 35 (13.5)
Exercise N (%) Inactive 74 (11.8) 16 (22.9) 13 (9.2) 10 (9.7) 9 (20.0) 26 (9.7) χ2 (8) = 22.636** (Cramer’s V = 0.134**)
Moderately active 83 (13.2) 15 (21.4) 13 (9.2) 16 (15.5) 5 (11.1) 34 (12.7)
Active 470 (75.0) 39 (55.7) 115 (81.6) 77 (74.8) 31 (68.9) 208 (77.6)
Smoker N (%) 115 (18.6) 21 (30.4) 17 (12.4) 22 (21.4) 7 (16.7) 48 (17.9) χ2 (4) = 10.567* (Cramer’s V = 0.131*)
Nicotine dependence of smokers Mean (SD) 1.7 (1.89) 2.4 (1.86) 1.4 (2.26) 1.8 (1.78) 3.3 (3.45) 1.2 (1.24) H(4) = 7.601 (η2 = 0.102)
Alcohol consumption (unit: standard drinks) Mean (SD) 5.0 (6.67) 6.7e (8.25) 8.1c,d,e (8.41) 4.6b (5.85) 3.9b (4.20) 3.3a,b (4.91) H(4) = 74.218*** (η2 = 0.090)
Overconsumption of alcohol N (%) 81 (13.8) 12 (18.5) 41 (32.0) 7 (7.4) 3 (8.6) 18 (6.8) χ2 (4) = 51.889*** (Cramer’s V = 0.297***)
  1. Note: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. aMediterranean, bScandinavian, cIsrael, dIran, eHungary. Upper indexes in cells indicate significant mean difference from certain subsamples