Skip to main content

Table 1 All studies found with conversion disorder and neuroimaging. Studies indicated with a were included in the meta-analysis

From: Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder

Study Disorder Control group Number of participants Imaging method
Atmaca, et al. [82] motor conversion yes patients: 12 (f), control: 12 (f) sMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Atmaca, et al. [83] somatization disorder yes patients: 20 (f), control: 20 (f) sMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Atmaca, et al. [84] motor conversion yes patients: 20 (f), control: 20 (f) sMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Aybek, et al. [29] motor conversion yes patients: 15 (11f, 4m) [2 groups: hemiparesis & paraparesis], control: 25 (16f, 9m) sMRI (3.0 Tesla)
aAybek, et al. [52] motor conversion yes patients: 12 (9f, 3m), control 14 (11f, 3m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
aAybek, et al. [47] motor conversion yes patients: 12 (8f, 4m), control 13 (10f, 3m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Benbadis, et al. [85] syncope of unknown origin no patients: 10 (5f, 5m) CT (7 patients), MRI (8 patients)
Blakemore, et al. [86] motor conversion yes patients: 6 (4f, 2m), feigner: 12 (8f), control: 12 (8f) EEG
Blakemore, et al. [87] motor conversion yes patients: 6 (4f, 2m), feigner: 12 (8f), control: 12 (8f) EEG
Bonilha, et al. [88] idiopathic dystonia yes patients: 7 (6f, 1m), control: 10 (8f, 2m) sMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Burke, et al. [89] sensory conversion no Patients: 10 (10f) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Burgmer, et al. [90] motor conversion yes patients: 4 (m), control: 7 (3f, 4m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Carey, et al. [91] body dysmorphic disorder no patients 6 (4m, 2f) SPECT (HMPAO)
Cojan, et al. [19] motor conversion yes patients: 1 (f), control: 30 (normal:24, feigner: 6) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
aCzarnecki, et al. [60] motor conversion yes patients:5 (3f, 2m) SPECT (99mTc-Ethyl cysteinate)
ade Lange, et al. [16] motor conversion no patients: 8 (5f, 3m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
ade Lange, et al. [64] motor conversion no patients:7 (5f, 2m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
de Lange, et al. [21] motor conversion no patients: 8 fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
de Ruiter, et al. [92] non clinical dissociative experiences yes individuals: 43 (23 low (15f, 8m), 20 high (10f, 10m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Devinsky, et al. [93] C-NES yes C-NES only:22, C-NES + Epilepsy:38, Epilepsy only:43,Epilepsy + other psych:59 EEG
aElzinga, et al. [46] motor conversion yes patients: 13 (f), control:14 (f) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Felmingham, et al. [94] dissociative PTSD yes patients:23 (13f, 10m), 12 dissociative fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Feusner, et al. [95] body dysmorphic disorder yes patients: 12 (10f, 2m), control: 13 (11f, 2m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Feusner, et al. [96] body dysmorphic disorder yes patients: 12 (10f, 2m), control: 12 (10f, 2m) sMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Garcia-Campayo, et al. [97] somatization disorder no patients: 11 (5f, 6m) SPECT (HMPAO or TC-bicisate)
Ghaffar, et al. [62] motor conversion yes patients: 3 (3f), control: 6 fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Hakala, et al. [98] somatization disorder yes patients: 10 (10f), control: 16 (16f) sMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Hoechstetter, et al. [99] motor conversion no patients: 3 (2f, 1m) MEG
Hovorka, et al. [100] PNES no patients: 56 (39f, 17m) EEG
Karatas, et al. [101] PNES no patients: (88) EEG
Knyazeva, et al. [102] PNES yes patients: 13 (8f, 5m), control: 13 (8f, 5m) EEG
Krüger, et al. [103] dissociation DES yes patients: 50 EEG
Labate, et al. [28] PNES yes patients: 20 (11f, 9m), control: 40 (21f, 19m) sMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Mailis-Gagnon, et al. [24] hysterical anaesthesia no patients: 4 (3f, 1m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Moser, et al. [104] dissociation yes patients: 11 (11f), control: 9 (9f) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Nicholson, et al. [105] motor conversion yes patients: 15 (10f, 5m) control: 31 (19f, 12m) sMRI (3.0 Tesla)
Rauch, et al. [106] body dysmorphic disorder yes patients: 8 (?) control: 8 (?) MRI
Roelofs, et al. [66] motor conversion no patients: 6 (f) EEG
Sar, et al. [107] dissociative identity disorder yes patients: 21 (14f, 7m), control: 9 (6f, 3m) SPECT (HMPAO)
aSpence, et al. [20] motor conversion yes patients: 2 (m), control: 6 PET
aStone, et al. [74] motor conversion yes patients: 4 (3f, 1m), control: 4 (3f, 1m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
avan Beilen, et al. [50] motor conversion yes patients: 9 (7f, 2m), control: 21 normal control (17f, 4m) 13 feigning (4f, 9m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
van Der Kruijs, et al. [108] PNES yes patients: 11 (6f, 5m), control: 12 (8f, 4m) fMRI (3.0 Tesla)
aVoon, et al. [43] conversion tremor, dystonia, gait disorder yes patients: 11 (7f, 4m), control: 11 (7f, 4m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
aVoon, et al. [27] motor conversion yes patients: 16 (10f, 6m), control: 16 (10f, 6m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Voon, et al. [25] motor conversion no patients: 8 (5f, 3m) fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
aVuilleumier, et al. [22] sensorimotor conversion no patients: 7 (6f, 1m) PET (HMPAO)
Werring, et al. [109] sensory conversion yes patients: 5 (4f, 1m), control 7 () fMRI (1.5 Tesla)
Yazici, et al. [110] Astasia-Abasia no patients: 5 (3f, 2m) PET (HMPAO)
  1. Abbreviations: CT X-ray computed tomography; EEG electroencephalography; fMRI functional magnetic resonance tomography; sMRI structural magnetic resonance tomography; MEG magnetoencephalography; SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography; PET positron emission tomography, sex of individuals is indicated in brackets when reported in the study, aindicates studies that were included in the meta-analysis