Skip to main content

Table 2 Subgroup analyses of the incidence of PTSD after earthquakesaIncidence rates were obtained using a random-effects model

From: The incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors after earthquakes:a systematic review and meta-analysis

Group Number of studies Incidencea (95 % CI)% p value (heterogeneity**) I2(%) p value (interaction***)
Total 60 23.66 (19.34–28.27) <0.001 99.5  
Assessment time after earthquake      <0.001
≤9 months 28 28.76 (22.28–35.71) <0.001 99.5  
>9 months 32 19.48 (14.09–25.50) <0.001 99.5  
Gender      <0.001
Male 26 22.57 (16.53–29.23) <0.001 98.8  
Female 29 34.82 (26.85–43.24) <0.001 99.3  
Educational level      <0.001
Elementary school or below 13 31.56 (21.22–42.90) <0.001 99.1  
Beyond elementary school 29 19.76 (14.33–25.82) <0.001 99.3  
Marital status      0.069
Married 7 25.61 (13.74–439.68) <0.001 99.0  
Unmarried 7 22.74(12.23–35.32) <0.001 97.2  
Damage to one’s house      <0.001
Yes 6 38.49 (25.11–52.82) <0.001 98.2  
No 6 23.97 (8.08–44.81) <0.001 99.3  
Bereavement      <0.001
Yes 12 39.10 (25.74–53.33) <0.001 98.5  
No 10 19.92 (10.89–30.83) <0.001 99.2  
Injury of body      <0.001
Yes 6 23.28 (13.91–34.16) <0.001 96.4  
No 5 9.63 (3.62–18.09) <0.001 98.2  
Witnessed death      <0.001
Yes 3 26.28 (7.05–52.14) <0.001 98.8  
No 3 14.69 (0.06–41.35) <0.001 99.3  
  1. ** p values for heterogeneity across studies were computed using Cochrane’s Q test
  2. *** p values for comparisons between subgroups were computed using the χ2 test with one degree of freedom