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Table 3 Predictors of past-year nonmedical prescription drug abuse, EU-Meds, 2014

From: Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in the European Union

  Stimulants Opioids Sedatives
2.8 %a (0.4)b N = 22,070 5.0 %a (0.5)b N = 22,070 5.8 %a (0.7)b N = 22,070
  O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value
Country          
 Great Britain   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Denmark 0.6 0.4–0.9 .001 0.7 0.5–0.9 .015 0.7 0.5–0.9 .006
 Germany 0.5 0.4–0.7 <.001 0.5 0.4–0.6 <.001 0.5 0.4–0.7 <.001
 Spain 0.6 0.4–0.8 .003 1.1 0.9–1.4 .383 1.7 1.3–2.1 <.001
 Sweden 0.7 0.5–0.9 .032 0.6 0.4–0.8 .001 1.3 1.0–1.7 .029
Wald Chi-Square (DF)-P Chi = 4.2, 4df, P = .002 Chi = 19.3, 4df, P < .001 Chi = 39.3, 4df, P < .001
Sex          
 Male   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Female 0.5 0.3–0.8 .002 0.7 0.6–0.9 <.000 0.8 0.7–0.9 .008
Age, years          
 12–17   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 18–29 3.6 2.3–5.7 <.001 3.4 2.3–4.9 <.001 5.5 3.5–8.2 <.001
 30–49 2.5 1.6–4.0 <.001 3.6 2.5–5.3 <.001 5.4 3.6–8.2 <.001
Wald Chi-Square (DF)-P Chi = 15.5, 2df, P = <.001 Chi = 24.0, 2df, P = <.001 Chi = 33.7, 2df, P = <.001
Prescribed (outcome drug)c          
 No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Yes 7.8 6.1–10.2 <.001 8.8 7.3–10.6 <.001 10.5 8.6–12.6 <.001
Serious Psych Distress          
 No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Yes 4.5 3.5–5.8 <.001 3.2 2.6–3.9 <.001 4.2 3.5–5.0 <.001
ADHD Dx          
 No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Yes 9.5 7.2–12.5 <.001 3.5 2.6–4.6 <.001 5.1 3.9–6.5 <.001
Sexually Transmitted Disease          
 No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Yes 7.2 4.8–10.9 <.001 4.6 3.1–6.9 <.001 3.9 2.7–5.6 <.001
HIV          
 No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
 Yes 15.1 7.7–29.3 <.001 18.9 10–34 <.001 12.2 6.5–22.7 <.001
Arrested < Age 15          
No   1.0    1.0    1.0  
Yes 2.6 2.1–3.5 <.001 2.9 1.9–2.7 <.001 2.1 1.8–2.5 <.001
  1. Reference level O.R. = 1.0. All estimates adjusted for complex sampling design using SUDAAN (release 10.1). Wald Test used for all P-Values
  2. Dx diagnosis, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, O.R. odds ratio, C.I. confidence interval
  3. aWeighted Percentage
  4. bWeighted Standard Error. Ever prescribed refers to whether the respondent was ever prescribed the outcome drug (Stimulants, Opioids, or Sedatives. Illicit drug use includes any of the following: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, inhalants, designer drugs