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Table 4 Predictors of past-year co-occurring nonmedical prescription drug abuse and co-occurring illicit drug use, EU-Meds, 2014

From: Nonmedical use of prescription drugs in the European Union

  Stimulants Opioids Sedatives
52.5 %a (0.5)b N = 498 32.1 %a (0.4)b N = 949 28.3 %a (0.3)b N = 1,099
  O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value O.R. 95 % C.I. P-Value
Country          
 Great Britain 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Denmark 0.9 0.4–1.9 .765 0.4 0.2–0.8 .006 0.3 0.1–0.6 <.001
 Germany 0.5 0.3–0.9 .018 0.6 0.3–0.9 .025 0.4 0.2–0.7 <.001
 Spain 0.6 0.3–1.1 .065 0.4 0.2–0.6 <.000 0.3 0.2–0.4 <.001
 Sweden 0.8 0.4–1.7 .529 0.9 0.5–1.7 .744 0.3 0.2–0.5 <.001
Wald Chi-Square (DF)-P Chi = 1.8, 4df, P = .111 Chi = 5.4, 4df, P < .001 Chi = 7.8, 4df, P < .001
Sex          
 Male 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Female 0.5 0.3–0.7 .002 0.6 0.4–0.9 .013 0.6 0.4–0.9 .007
Age, years          
 12–17 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 18–29 0.9 0.3–2.2 .748 1.2 0.5–2.6 .655 0.9 0.4–2.1 .764
 30–49 0.9 0.3–2.0 .628 0.8 0.4–1.7 .494 0.6 0.3–1.4 .256
Wald Chi-Square (DF)-P Chi = 0.87, 2df, P = .871 Chi = 2.5, 2df, P = .083 Chi = 2.0, 2df, P = .133
Prescribed [outcome drug]c          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 0.7 0.4–1.2 .173 0.9 0.6–1.4 .837 0.8 0.5–1.3 .354
Serious Psych Distress          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 1.8 1.1–2.9 .015 2.2 1.5–3.3 <.001 1.8 1.3–2.7 <.001
ADHD Dx          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 1.0 0.6–1.7 .969 1.6 0.9–2.9 .091 1.4 0.8.2–2.2 .117
Sexually Transmitted Disease          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 2.4 1.2–4.8 .018 5.2 2.5–10.7 <.001 2.8 1.4–5.5 .003
HIV          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 0.9 0.3–2.6 .768 1.4 0.6–3.7 .456 1.8 0.7–4.8 .207
Arrested < Age 15          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 1.7 1.1–2.9 .023 2.3 1.5–3.4 <.001 1.9 1.3–2.8 .002
Source of NMPDU          
 Social (Friend/Family) 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Dealer/Theft/Fake 1.9 1.2–2.9 .008 2.6 1.8–3.9 <.001 1.8 1.1–2.7 <.001
Non-oral Routes of Administration          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 2.1 1.3–3.4 <.001 1.3 0.9–2.0 .138 1.2 0.8–1.8 .478
Motivation for Use-Euphoria          
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 1.9 1.2–3.1 .008 4.8 3.1–7.4 <.001 3.5 2.0–6.1 <.001
  1. Reference level O.R. = 1.0; All estimates adjusted for complex sampling design using SUDAAN (release 10.1). Wald Test used for all P-Values
  2. Dx diagnosis, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, NMPDU nonmedical prescription drug use, O.R odds ratio, C.I confidence interval
  3. aWeighted percentages
  4. bWeighted standard error. Note: outcome coded 0 = No Co-Occurring Illicit Drug Use, 1 = Any Co-Occurring Illicit Drug Use
  5. cEver prescribed refers to the respondent receiving a prescription for the outcome drug (Stimulants, Opioids, or Sedatives. Illicit drug use includes any of the following: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, inhalants, designer drugs