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Table 5 Group differences in change in scale scores for gatekeeper behavior, self-efficacy, and social norms

From: Brief gatekeeper training for suicide prevention in an ethnic minority population: a controlled intervention




Mean difference (95 % CI) between intervention and control groups in change in scale scores

Gatekeeper Behavior

0.52 (0.28,0.75)

0.52 (0.28,0.75)b


0.50 (0.27,0.73)

0.55 (0.32,0.79)c

Social Norms

0.05 (-0.31,0.41

0.02 (-0.38,0.43)d

  1. Table values indicate differences in score change between groups as calculated using regression models, with a positive value favoring the intervention group. All three scales had a 4-point range from a low of 1 to a high of 5
  2. aRegression model utilized purposeful forward stepwise selection. Age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, whether a health care provider, number of close relations at risk for suicide, and whether seen/talked to a mental health provider in last 12 months were all examined as potential confounders; b Adjusted for baseline score; c Adjusted for baseline score and number of close relations; d Adjusted for baseline score, education, number of close relations, age, gender, race/ethnicity, health care provider, and seen a mental health provider