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Table 2 Characteristics for all participants according to parental care and overprotection

From: Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

  Father   Mother  
High care Low care Low over-protection High over-protection High care Low care Low over-protection High over-protection
(n = 363) (n = 339) (n = 327) (n = 375) (n = 358) (n = 344) (n = 337) (n = 365)
Sociodemographic and life style factors         
 Age, mean (SD) 59.7 (10.9) 58.9 (11.2) 59.1 (10.7) 59.4 (11.4) 59.4 (11.2) 59.1 (10.9) 60.3 (10.4) 58.4 (11.5)*
 Sex, male (%) 28.1 48.1** 33.3 41.6* 30.7 45.1** 32.6 42.4**
 Marital status, without partner (%) 20.1 18.6 18.7 20.0 17.3 21.5 19.3 19.5
 Educational level, under 10 years (%) 11.8 15.0 11.6 14.9 10.6 16.3* 12.5 14.3
 Subjective economic level, low-very low (%) 15.2 26.6** 14.7 25.9** 13.7 27.9** 16.0 24.9**
 Occupation, unemployed (%) 50.7 49.0 47.4 52.0 49.4 50.3 49.9 49.9
 Current smoking, yes (%) 8.0 13.9* 8.9 12.5 9.2 12.5 7.7 13.7*
 Current drinking, yes (%) 50.4 58.7* 53.8 54.9 53.4 55.5 53.1 55.6
 Habitual exercise, yes (%) 53.2 52.5 53.8 52.0 53.1 52.6 54.9 51.0
Physical factors         
 Obesity, BMI >25 (%) 22.0 26.0 25.1 23.0 22.4 25.6 23.4 24.4
 Hypertension (%) 41.3 42.2 39.5 43.7 40.8 42.7 41.5 41.9
 Diabetes (%) 13.0 17.1 11.0 18.4** 12.0 18.0* 12.5 17.3
 Past history of cardiovascular diseases (%) 11.3 15.9 10.7 16.0* 11.5 15.7 11.3 15.6
 Past history of cancer (%) 5.8 6.5 4.6 7.5 5.9 6.4 3.9 8.2*
 Past history of respiratory diseases (%) 13.0 16.5 12.5 16.5 13.4 16.0 12.8 16.4
 Past history of digestive diseases (%) 16.5 25.4** 15.3 25.6** 17.9 23.8 19.3 22.2
 Current pain symptom (%) 55.9 67.0** 54.7 66.9** 57.5 65.1* 56.4 65.8*
Psychological factor         
 Depression symptom, Score, median (IQR) 2 (0–4) 3 (1–6)** 2 (0–4) 3 (1–6)** 2 (0–3) 3 (1–6)* 2 (0–4) 3 (1–6)*
  1. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg and/or use of an antihypertensive agent. Diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), and/or a 2-h post-loaded or causal glucose level of ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL), HbA1c (NGSP) ≥ 6.5 % and/or current use of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents
  2. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg and/or use of an antihypertensive agent. Diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), and/or a 2-h post-loaded or causal glucose level of ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL), HbA1c (NGSP) ≥ 6.5 % and/or current use of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents
  3. Values were tested by t-test (for age), Chi-square test (for frequencies) or Mann-Whitney U-test (for depression)
  4. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation [SD]), frequency or median