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Table 3 Odds ratios for sleep disturbance according to parenting styles, by sex

From: Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

Inadequate parenting styles (vs. adequate parenting style) No. with sleep disturbance Model 1 (Adjusted for socio- demographic and life style factors) Model 2 (Model 1+ physical factors) Model 3 (Model 2+ psychological factor)
Inadequate parenting Adequate parenting OR (95 % CI) p value OR (95 % CI) p value OR (95 % CI) p value
Men (n = 265)          
Father          
 Low care (vs. High care) 51/163 15/102 2.67 (1.36–5.20) 0.004 2.49 (1.21–5.09) 0.01 1.79 (0.82–3.87) 0.1
 High overprotection (vs. Low overprotection) 50/156 16/109 2.91 (1.50–5.65) 0.002 2.40 (1.19–4.85) 0.01 2.17 (1.03–4.58) 0.04
Mother          
 Low care (vs. High care) 43/155 23/110 1.50 (0.81–2.79) 0.2 1.47 (0.76–2.85) 0.2 1.18 (0.58–2.40) 0.6
 High overprotection (vs. Low overprotection) 46/155 20/110 2.10 (1.12–3.97) 0.02 1.87 (0.95–3.65) 0.07 1.59 (0.77–3.28) 0.2
 Women (n = 437)          
Father          
 Low care (vs. High care) 57/176 80/361 1.04 (0.67–1.61) 0.8 0.95 (0.60–1.49) 0.8 0.67 (0.41–1.09) 0.1
 High overprotection (vs. Low overprotection) 75/219 62/218 1.23 (0.81–1.88) 0.3 1.13 (0.73–1.75) 0.6 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 0.7
Mother          
 Low care (vs. High care) 70/189 67/248 1.48 (0.96–2.25) 0.07 1.37 (0.89–2.13) 0.2 0.98 (0.61–1.58) 0.9
 High overprotection (vs. Low overprotection) 77/210 60/227 1.68 (1.10–2.56) 0.02 1.62 (1.05–2.52) 0.03 1.28 (0.80–2.04) 0.3
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for socio-demographic and life style factors (age, marital status, educational level, subjective economic level, occupation, current drinking, current smoking, and habitual exercise)
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for covariates included in Model 1 + physical factors (Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, past history of cardiovascular disease, past history of cancer, past history of respiratory disease, past history of digestive disease, and current pain symptom.)
  3. Model 3: Adjusted for covariates included in Model 2 + psychological factor (depressive symptom)