Skip to main content

Table 4 ORs for sleep disturbance by combinations of the parenting styles by the same sex parent

From: Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

Parenting style a No. of participants No. with sleep disturbance Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95 % CI) p value OR (95 % CI) p value OR (95 % CI) p value
HC-LO 250 51 1.00   1.00   1.00  
LC-LO 86 25 1.66 (0.93–2.95) 0.08 1.62 (0.90–2.91) 0.1 1.28 (0.69–2.39) 0.4
HC-HO 100 31 1.90 (1.11–3.26) 0.02 1.85 (1.07–3.22) 0.03 1.83 (1.03–3.26) 0.04
LC-HO 266 96 2.24 (1.48–3.41) <0.001 1.98 (1.29–3.05) 0.002 1.42 (0.89–2.27) 0.1
  1. HC-LO High Care-Low overprotection, LC-LO Low Care-Low Overprotection, HC-HO High Care-High overprotection, LC-HO Low Care-High Overprotection
  2. aMen categorized by the father’s parenting styles and women by the mother’s parenting styles
  3. Model 1: Adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors (age, sex, marital status, educational level, subjective economic level, occupation, current drinking, current smoking, and habitual exercise.)
  4. Model 2: Adjusted for Model 1 + physical factors (Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, past history of cardiovascular disease, past history of cancer, past history of respiratory disease, past history of digestive disease, and current pain symptom.)
  5. Model 3: Adjusted for Model 2 + depressive symptom as a psychological factor