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Table 1 Health state description for the TTO

From: The effect of the medicine administration route on health-related quality of life: Results from a time trade-off survey in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in 2 Nordic countries

Health State Description
Injection You say yes to medication and receive the medication as an injection. It takes approximately 30 min for the medication to work. During the period until the medication starts to work you are still exasperated, aggressive, restless, agitated or anxious. For approximately 1 day after you have taken the medication, in 1 out of 3 cases you risk feeling sluggish, feeling tired, having the bubble feeling or feeling groggy.
Inhalation You say yes to the medication and receive the medication via an inhaler, which you use by exhaling, placing the inhaler in your mouth and inhaling, whereby you receive the medication. It takes approximately 2 min for the medication to work. During the period until the medication starts to work you are still exasperated, aggressive, restless, agitated or anxious. For approximately 7 h after you have taken the medication, in 1 out of 10 cases you risk feeling sluggish, feeling tired, having the bubble feeling or feeling groggy.
Tablet You say yes to the medication and receive it in tablet form, which you swallow with a glass of water. It takes approximately 1 h for the medication to work. During the period until the medication starts to work you are still exasperated, agitated or anxious. For approximately 1 day after you have taken the medication, in 1 out of 3 cases you risk feeling sluggish, feeling tired, having the bubble feeling or feeling groggy.
  1. Three health states (‘Injection’ , ‘Tablets’ and ‘Inhaler’) were developed for eliciting utility values of 3 treatment methods for agitation episodes. All health states included living with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and having one yearly agitation episode. It was assumed that patients knew what it was like to live with their own condition (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder), thus the questionnaire did not describe that. TTO = Time trade-off