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Table 1 Means and SDs of the MIBQ items at the four time points in Group 1

From: Validation and factor analysis of mother-infant bonding questionnaire in pregnant and postpartum women in Japan

MIBQ items T1   T2   T3   T4  
  M (SD) Skewness M (SD) Skewness M (SD) Skewness M (SD) Skewness
1: loving 0.45 (0.65) 1.28 0.39 (0.59) 1.29 0.10 (0.35) 3.99 0.09 (0.30) 3.58
2: disappointed 0.06 (0.30) 5.87 0.05 (0.31) 6.45 0.07 (0.35) 5.61 0.09 (0.40) 5.47
3: neutral and felt nothing 0.42 (0.80) 1.75 0.44 (0.83) 1.82 0.26 (0.72) 2.89 0.19 (0.61) 3.36
4: possessive 1.09 (1.03) 0.45 0.90 (0.96) 0.69 0.59 (0.90) 1.32 0.62 (0.88) 1.26
5: resentful 0.04 (0.25) 7.08 0.04 (0.24) 6.18 0.07 (0.32) 5.07 0.24 (0.55) 2.22
6: dislike 0.10 (0.41) 4.71 0.11 (0.48) 4.70 0.07 (0.36) 5.68 0.13 (0.45) 3.79
7: protective 0.30 (0.60) 2.04 0.34 (0.61) 1.77 0.13 (0.42) 3.64 0.09 (0.32) 3.96
8: joyful 0.61 (0.82) 1.16 0.64 (0.81) 1.01 0.22 (0.54) 2.73 0.25 (0.52) 2.01
9: aggressive 0.06 (0.32) 5.57 0.04 (0.25) 8.10 0.03 (0.22) 9.49 0.09 (0.34) 4.29
Total 3.11 (3.03) 1.24 2.95 (2.93) 1.19 1.54 (2.30) 3.03 1.78 (2.45) 2.17
  1. Each item is scored on a four-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 3. Total scores can range from 0 to 27
  2. MIBQ Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire, M mean, SD standard deviation, T1 early pregnancy before week 25, T2 late pregnancy around week 36, T3 5 days after delivery, T4 1 month after delivery