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Table 3 Estimated mean changes between phases for alcohol misuse, depression, and functioning (N = 290)

From: Associations between personality disorder characteristics and treatment outcomes in people with co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression

Phase comparison Alcohol use (per day) (OTI) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
Est. mean change (SD) W2 Sig. (2-tailed) Est. mean change (SD) W2 Sig.(2-tailed) Est. mean change (SD) W2 Sig. (2-tailed)
6-months vs. Baseline -4.94 (9.98) 70.97 p < .001 -11.70 (13.87) 205.58 p < .001 6.71 (14.71) 59.90 p < .001
12-months vs. Baseline -5.19 (9.89) 79.49 p < .001 -13.72 (13.91) 281.32 p < .001 8.22 (14.75) 89.61 p < .001
12-months vs. 6-months -0.24 (7.09) 0.34 .563 -2.02 (13.04) 6.98 .008 1.52 (13.88) 3.44 .064
  1. Note: Change scores are expressed as the subsequent phase minus the earlier phase. Estimated mean changes and Wald chi-square (W2) statistics are from generalized estimating equations utilising all available data. Expressing these changes across phases in orthogonal polynomial terms (as opposed to pair-wise comparisons): all of the linear components of change were statistically significant (with equivalent W2 statistics to the 12-months vs. Baseline comparisons), as were all of the quadratic components of change (OTI: W2 = 31.65, p < .001; BDI-II: W2 = 50.94, p < .001; GAF: W2 = 12.91, p < .001)