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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of categories with number of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in the general population (N = 5303), in weighted average predicted probabilities adjusted for gender and age (%)

From: Prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder symptoms: a study based on the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2

  Total 0 BPD symptoms 1–2 BPD symptoms 3–4 BPD symptoms ≥5 BPD symptoms P for trend
  % % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI]  
3-year mental disorders       
Any mood disorder 8.4 3.76 [2.87,4.66] 14.46 [11.87,17.04] 36.18 [27.74,44.62] 58.00 [40.27,75.74] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Major depression 7.5 3.45 [2.63,4.28] 13.52 [11.03,16.01] 30.67 [23.21,38.12] 40.53 [24.86,56.20] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Dysthymia 0.7 0.03 [–0.03,0.09] 1.41 [0.32,2.49] 3.93 [–0.90,8.77] 5.41 [–1.55,12.38] .000a,b,c
 Bipolar disorder 0.8 0.31 [0.03,0.58] 0.80 [0.18,1.41] 4.53 [1.61,7.45] 15.74 [4.60,26.88] .000b,c,d,e
Any anxiety disorder 7.9 4.87 [3.88,5.87] 11.95 [8.60,15.31] 25.01 [18.37,31.65] 40.25 [27.24,53.27] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Panic disorder 1.9 0.88 [0.41,1.36] 3.81 [1.89,5.73] 4.38 [2.42,6.34] 11.58 [2.12,21.04] .000a,b,c
 Agoraphobia 0.4 0.29 [–0.01,0.60] 0.33 [0.09,0.57] 2.86 [–0.04,5.76] 3.35 [–0.55,7.25] .004b,c,d,e
 Social phobia 2.5 1.15 [0.57,1.74] 3.82 [2.16,5.48] 11.95 [6.62,17.28] 19.94 [4.97,34.91] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Specific phobia 3.5 2.68 [1.87,3.49] 4.71 [2.87,6.55] 7.41 [3.86,10.96] 13.15 [4.49,21.80] .000b,c
 GAD 1.6 0.77 [0.43,1.10] 2.77 [1.36,4.19] 6.89 [3.19,10.60] 5.32 [–0.80,11.44] .000a,b,c,d
Any substance use disorder 5.7 3.82 [2.88,4.76] 7.40 [5.49,9.31] 18.58 [11.80,25.36] 31.32 [17.46,45.17] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Alcohol abuse 3.6 3.05 [2.18,3.92] 4.73 [3.04,6.41] 4.32 [1.49,7.15] 3.47 [–3.20,10.14] .030
 Alcohol dependence 0.9 0.24 [0.08,0.39] 1.12 [0.56,1.69] 7.27 [2.79,11.75] 19.23 [2.23,36.23] .000a,b,c,d,e
 Drug abuse 0.9 0.60 [0.14,1.07] 1.03 [0.18,1.88] 2.57 [–0.10,5.23] 8.16 [–0.33,16.65] .003c,e
 Drug dependence 0.6 0.08 [–0.00,0.16] 0.74 [0.23,1.25] 5.72 [0.30,11.14] 8.44 [–0.32,17.19] .000a,b,c,d,e
Any mental disorder 17.4 10.96 [9.59, 12.33] 25.97 [22.10, 29.84] 57.18 [48.11,66.26] 74.76 [62.99,86.53] .000a,b,c,d,e
3-year suicidal behaviour 2.4 0.94 [0.48,1.40] 3.61 [2.13,5.08] 14.63 [8.03,21.23] 29.87 [16.37,43.38] .000a,b,c,d,e
Vulnerability to mental disorders       
Childhood abuse 27.3 22.83 [21.28,24.38] 35.31 [31.76,38.85] 48.63 [40.20,57.06] 58.12 [42.01,74.23] .000a,b,c,d,e
Lifetime mental health problems of parents 31.4 28.58 [26.32,30.83] 36.07 [32.36,39.78] 42.05 [34.32,49.77] 65.90 [54.73,77.06] .000a,b,c,e,f
  1. a: category 0 symptoms versus category 1–2 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  2. b: category 0 symptoms versus category 3–4 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  3. c: category 0 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  4. d: category 1–2 symptoms versus category 3–4 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  5. e: category 1–2 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  6. f: category 3–4 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)