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Table 3 Current mental disability and service use for mental health problems of categories with number of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in the general population (N = 5303), in weighted adjusted averages (Mean) or adjusted average predicted probabilities (%)

From: Prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder symptoms: a study based on the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2

  Total 0 BPD symptoms 1–2 BPD symptoms 3–4 BPD symptoms ≥5 BPD symptoms P for trend
   Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
  Mean Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI]   
Mental disability            
Social functioninga 89.7 92.07 [91.32,92.82] 91.48 [90.73,92.23] 87.28 [85.85,88.71] 88.06 [86.66,89.46] 68.85 [63.58,74.12] 72.52 [67.75,77.28] 63.72 [54.98,72.47] 70.60 [62.33,78.86] .000a,b,c,d,e .000a,b,c,d,e
Role emotional functioninga 92.2 95.35 [94.42,96.28] 94.51 [93.53,95.49] 89.62 [87.73,91.51] 90.72 [88.91,92.53] 63.80 [55.32,72.27] 69.06 [60.98,77.13] 51.40 [36.80,66.01] 61.32 [46.42,76.21] .000a,b,c,d,e .000a,b,c,d,e
Mental healtha 80.1 82.92 [82.39,83.44] 82.51 [81.96,83.05] 75.91 [74.79,77.03] 76.46 [75.38,77.53] 63.80 [60.69,66.90] 66.31 [63.24,69.38] 54.20 [48.93,59.47] 58.99 [53.21,64.76] .000a,b,c,d,e,f .000a,b,c,d,e
  % % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI] % [95 % CI]   
3-year service use for mental health problems            
General medical care 16.0 10.55 [9.10,11.99] 13.19 [11.61,14.77] 23.52 [20.16,26.87] 19.75 [17.22,22.28] 47.76 [39.11,56.41] 30.04 [21.57,38.51] 64.91 [49.00,80.83] 33.09 [16.88,49.30] .000a,b,c,d,e .000a,b,c
Mental health care 11.1 6.68 [5.58,7.79] 8.57 [7.26,9.88] 16.68 [12.99,20.38] 13.87 [10.97,16.78] 37.55 [29.14,45.96] 22.39 [15.64,29.14] 49.35 [34.59,64.12] 21.35 [10.20,32.51] .000a,b,c,d,e .000a,b,c
  1. a: category 0 symptoms versus category 1–2 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  2. b: category 0 symptoms versus category 3–4 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  3. c: category 0 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  4. d: category 1–2 symptoms versus category 3–4 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  5. e: category 1–2 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  6. f: category 3–4 symptoms versus category ≥ 5 symptoms was significantly different (P < .01; in bold at P < .001)
  7. Model 1: adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, education level, living situation, paid job status)
  8. Model 2: adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics (model 1) as well as for mental disorders (any mood, any anxiety, any substance use disorder)
  9. a This scale varies from 0 (low functioning/ill health) to 100 (high functioning/good health)