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Table 11 Psychopathological Functioning Levels – Rating Scale (PFL-RS): English schedule

From: Psychopathological Functioning Levels (PFLs) and their possible relevance in psychiatric treatments: a qualitative research project

  Internal perspective   External perspective
SSi-1 The individual uncritically distorts the meaning of the situations (and/or) of some of them (and/or) some rules of social living SSe-1 At least one aspect of social living (and/or) individual’s relationships is permanently impaired by an altered reality testing
SSi-2 A stable ability to satisfy basic needs (and/or) the needs of a stable relationship according to the rules of social living is impaired SSe-2 The individual alternates a great demand for the presence of others and sudden (and/or) unexpected estrangement
SSi-3 Loneliness is intolerable and is avoided even imagining relationships that cannot change (and/or) end SSe-3 The relational detachment is perceived as an abandonment which is hugely (and/or) not valued
SSi-4 The individual pursues (and/or) avoids the relational commitments of affective life (and/or) of study/work (and/or) spare time according to absolutized motivations SSe-4 The social relationships that entail intimacy (and/or) strong contrasting emotions are not supported uninterruptedly (and/or) are handled only depending on an external guidance
SSi-5 The individual’s ability to be autonomous and to engage in a comparison with others is a source of difficulty, even in the absence of negative events SSe-5 The individual has difficulties in alternating relational distance and closeness (and/or) effort and self-restraint (and/or) activation and asking for help (and/or) cooperation and opposition
SSi-6 When establishing or continuing significant relationships the individual shows in some aspects an excessive tendency to avoidance (and/or) pessimism (and/or) excessive tension (and/or) passivity SSe-6 The individual imagines significant relationships but in case of need shows an excessive increase in the fear of promoting them (and/or) in the preoccupation about how they may proceed (and/or) in the tendency to adapt himself/herself to others
SSi-7 The individual imagines significant relationships and copes with the difficulties without too defeatist (and/or) discouraged (and/or) preoccupied attitudes SSe-7 The individual appears sufficiently calm and trustful in the establishment (and/or) continuation of meaningful relationships