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Table 3 Analyses of risk for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in patients with and without anxiety disorders

From: Increased risk of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in patients with anxiety disorders: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

Predictive variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95 % CI) P value HR (95 % CI) P value
Anxiety disorders 2.52 (1.92–3.32) <.001 2.17 (1.63–2.90) <.001
Age (≥60 = 1, <60 = 0) 1.44 (1.08–1.92) .014 1.09 (0.78–1.53) .601
Sex (female = 1, male = 0) 1.60 (1.23–2.10) .001 1.65 (1.26–2.17) <.001
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 1.76 (1.34–2.32) <.001 1.06 (0.75–1.48) .751
 Diabetes mellitus 1.93 (1.18–3.15) .009 1.18 (0.70–1.99) .528
 Chronic liver diseases 1.48 (1.12–1.96) .006 0.95 (0.70–1.29) .719
 Autoimmune diseases 1.28 (0.80–2.04) .309   
 Congestive heart failure 1.95 (1.04–3.67) .039 1.02 (0.52–1.98) .958
 Hyperlipidemia 2.06 (1.53–2.76) <.001 1.36 (0.96–1.92) .084
 Nephropathy 2.46 (1.72–3.54) <.001 1.69 (1.14–2.48) .008
 Cerebrovascular disease 2.33 (1.64–3.32) <.001 1.51 (1.02–2.24) .039
 COPD 1.87 (1.40–2.49) <.001 1.35 (0.99–1.84) .055
  1. HR indicates hazard ratio, CI indicates confidence interval, COPD indicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease