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Table 2 Comparison between low or moderate service users and high service users of general practitioners and psychiatrists by individuals with substance use disorders (n = 4,407) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2005

From: Factors associated with high use of general practitioner and psychiatrist services among patients attending an addiction rehabilitation center

Variable Low service usersa Moderate service usersb High service usersc Low service users vs. High service users Moderate service users vs. High service users
N = 1,175 N = 3,007 N = 225 pd pe
Predisposing factors      
Sex     0.065 0.119
 Female 360 (30.6 %) 1 269 (42.2 %) 83 (36.9 %)   
 Male 815 (69.4 %) 1 738 (57.8 %) 142 (63.1 %)   
Age group     0.002 0.424
 up to 30 years 353 (30.0 %) 621 (20.7 %) 51 (22.7 %)   
 30 to 49 years 613 (52.2 %) 1 702 (56.6 %) 119 (52.9 %)   
 50-64 years 187 (15.9 %) 578 (19.2 %) 43 (19.1 %)   
 65 years and above 22 (1.9 %) 106 (3.5 %) 12 (5.3 %)   
Enabling factors      
Neighborhood characteristics      
Population density (per km2) 7,218.6 ± 3,013.8 7,048.3 ± 2,877.3 6,494.9 ± 2,957.0 0.007 0.024
1st quintile of neighborhood material deprivation 23.07 ± 21.56 21.02 ± 20.63 22.02 ± 20.11 0.582 0.567
5th quintile of neighborhood material deprivation 23.54 ± 20.78 23.91 ± 20.30 23.54 ± 20.78 0.400 0.833
1st quintile of neighborhood social deprivation 5.63 ± 9.09 5.12 ± 8.08 6.12 ± 8.96 0.547 0.147
5th quintile of neighborhood social deprivation 50.60 ± 23.39 51.63 ± 23.35 50.40 ± 24.40 0.924 0.537
% of men 48.44 ± 1.69 48.40 ± 1.74 48.33 ± 1.65 0.462 0.650
% of persons aged up to 30 37.28 ± 2.76 37.16 ± 2.68 36.94 ± 2.65 0.163 0.347
% of persons aged 30-49 16.33 ± 2.69 16.21 ± 2.59 15.86 ± 2.42 0.048 0.117
% of persons aged 50-64 16.96 ± 1.61 17.06 ± 1.50 17.33 ± 1.50 0.010 0.033
% of persons 65 years and over 14.14 ± 3.33 14.26 ± 3.35 14.55 ± 3.20 0.158 0.305
% of recent immigrants 7.27 ± 3.41 7.02 ± 2.93 6.84 ± 2.88 0.149 0.472
Level of neighborhood social fragmentation 6.11 ± 4.43 6.07 ± 4.32 5.69 ± 4.28 0.282 0.295
Distance to the ARC (in km) 1.60 ± 0.87 1.65 ± 0.84 1.57 ± 0.93 0.624 0.212
Number of alcohol outlets with video lottery terminal 18.80 ± 8.13 18.80 ± 7.97 19.08 ± 8.21 0.699 0.675
Number of alcohol outlets without video lottery terminal 175.1 ± 83.41 171.4 ± 77.72 167.26 ± 83.02 0.295 0.528
Health services utilization      
Consulted other medical professionals 838 (71.3 %) 2 721 (90.5 %) 221 (98.2 %) <.001 <.001
Number of programs used in the ARC     <.001 0.002
 1 1 064 (90.6 %) 2 449 (81.4 %) 170 (75.6 %)   
 2 to 3 110 (9.4 %) 531 (17.7 %) 48 (21.3 %)   
 4 to 5 1 (0.0 %) 27 (0.9 %) 7 (3.1 %)   
Duration of care episode at the ARC     0.074 0.125
 Less than one year 691 (60.9 %) 1 575 (55.7 %) 124 (58.5 %)   
 One year 253 (22.3 %) 652 (23.0 %) 44 (20.8 %)   
 Two years 93 (8.2 %) 305 (10.8 %) 19 (9.0 %)   
 Three years 42 (3.7 %) 133 (4.7 %) 17 (8.0 %)   
 Four years and more 55 (4.9 %) 165 (5.8 %) 8 (3.8 %)   
Duration in the program in the ARC (in years)     0.310 0.214
 Less than one year 825 (70.2 %) 2 013 (66.9 %) 161 (71.6 %)   
 One year 209 (17.8 %) 573 (19.1 %) 40 (17.8 %)   
 Two years 70 (6.0 %) 199 (6.6 %) 14 (6.2 %)   
 Three years 24 (2.0 %) 87 (2.9 %) 7 (3.1 %)   
 Four years and more 47 (4.0 %) 135 (4.5 %) 3 (1.3 %)   
Need factors      
Diagnoses of substance abuse 221 (18.8 %) 1 528 (50.8 %) 190 (84.4 %) <.001 <.001
Alcohol abuse 70 (6.0 %) 1 216 (40.4 %) 149 (66.2 %) <.001 <.001
Drug abuse 156 (13.3 %) 868 (28.9 %) 171 (76.0 %) <.001 <.001
Concomitant drug and alcohol abuse 17 (1.5 %) 493 (16.4 %) 122 (54.2 %) <.001 <.001
Schizophrenia 8 (0.7 %) 334 (11.1 %) 113 (50.2 %) <.001 <.001
Mood disorder 42 (3.6 %) 792 (26.3 %) 146 (64.9 %) <.001 <.001
Anxiety disorder 199 (16.9 %) 1 965 (65.4 %) 212 (94.2 %) <.001 <.001
Personality disorder 16 (1.4 %) 481 (16.0 %) 117 (52.0 %) <.001 <.001
Number of mental disorders     <.001 <.001
 0 954 (81.2 %) 842 (28.0 %) 4 (1.8 %)   
 1 179 (15.2 %) 1 123 (37.4 %) 33 (14.7 %)   
 2 40 (3.4 %) 737 (24.5 %) 60 (26.7 %)   
 3 2 (0.2 %) 245 (8.2 %) 77 (34.2 %)   
 4 0 (0.0 %) 60 (2.0 %) 51 (22.7 %)   
Number of physical comorbidity     <.001 <.001
 0 895 (76.2 %) 1 433 (47.7 %) 56 (24.9 %)   
 1 to 2 262 (22.3 %) 1 266 (42.1 %) 107 (47.6 %)   
 3 to 5 18 (1.5 %) 283 (9.4 %) 49 (21.8 %)   
 6 and over 0 (0.0 %) 25 (0.8 %) 13 (5.8 %)   
Concomitant substance and mental disorders 58 (4.9 %) 1 191 (39.6 %) 186 (82.7 %) <.001 <.001
Concomitant substance and physical disorders 51 (4.3 %) 844 (28.1 %) 144 (64.0 %) <.001 <.001
Concomitant mental and physical disorders 56 (4.8 %) 1 158 (38.5 %) 167 (74.2 %) <.001 <.001
Concomitant substance, mental and physical disorders 11 (0.9 %) 660 (21.9 %) 142 (63.1 %) <.001 <.001
  1. a 25th percentile or lower for all consultations to GPs or psychiatrists
  2. b 26–94th percentile for all consultations to GPs or psychiatrists
  3. c 95th percentile for all consultations to GPs or psychiatrists
  4. d After Benjamini-Hocheberg’s correction, the significance level is fixed at p = .027
  5. e After Benjamini-Hocheberg’s correction, the significance level is fixed at p = .021