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Table 3 Generalized estimating equations on predictors of high service users of general practitioners and psychiatrists among individuals with substance use disorders (n = 4,407) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2005

From: Factors associated with high use of general practitioner and psychiatrist services among patients attending an addiction rehabilitation center

  OR SE 95 % CI pa
Lower Upper
Predisposing factors      
Sex (ref = female) 0.99 0.24 0.62 1.59 .975
Age group (ref = 29 years old and younger)      
 30–49 years 1.05 0.33 0.55 1.99 .893
 50–64 years 0.80 0.42 0.35 1.84 .601
 65 years and older 4.14 0.69 1.06 16.08 .040
Enabling factors      
Neighborhood characteristics      
Population density (per square Km) 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 .130
1st quintile of neighborhood material deprivation 0.99 0.03 0.92 1.05 .654
5th quintile of neighborhood material deprivation 1.01 0.01 0.99 1.03 .436
1st quintile of neighbourhood social deprivation 1.11 0.09 0.93 1.33 .255
5th quintile of neighbourhood social deprivation 1.04 0.03 0.98 1.10 .160
% of men 0.79 0.26 0.47 1.32 .375
% of persons aged up to 30 2.09 0.46 0.85 5.16 .110
% of persons aged 30–49 3.05 0.44 1.28 7.29 .012
% of persons aged 50–64 3.89 0.56 1.31 11.56 .015
% of persons 65 years and over 1.60 0.38 0.75 3.40 .220
% of recent immigrants 1.03 0.21 0.68 1.54 .893
Level of neighbourhood social fragmentation 0.90 0.22 0.59 1.37 .613
Distance to the ARC (in km) 0.61 0.29 0.34 1.08 .090
Number of alcohol outlets with video lottery terminal 1.03 0.02 0.99 1.08 .101
Number of alcohol outlets without video lottery terminal 1.00 0.01 0.99 1.01 .984
Health services utilization      
Consulted other medical professionals 3.97 0.70 1.00 15.69 .050
Number of programs used (ref = one program)      
 2 to 3 programs 0.64 0.27 0.38 1.07 .089
 4 to 5 programs 0.37 0.75 0.08 1.60 .182
Duration of care episode at the ARC (ref = less than a year)      
 One year 1.65 0.29 0.93 2.95 .088
 Two years 1.00 0.37 0.49 2.06 .994
 Three years 4.48 0.42 1.95 10.29 <.001
 Four years or more 0.52 0.98 0.08 3.55 .504
Duration in the program in the ARC (ref = less than a year)      
 One year 0.51 0.40 0.23 1.10 .087
 Two years 0.89 0.44 0.37 2.12 .786
 Three years 0.31 0.74 0.07 1.32 .114
 Four years or more 0.63 1.05 0.08 4.90 .656
Need factors      
Diagnosis of substance abuse 0.95 0.94 0.15 6.03 .961
Alcohol abuse 2.41 0.72 0.59 9.85 .220
Drug abuse 3.41 0.64 0.98 11.87 .054
Concomitant drug and alcohol abuse 1.65 0.65 0.46 5.89 .443
Schizophrenia 4.74 0.21 3.14 7.16 <.001
Mood disorder 2.65 0.19 1.83 3.82 <.001
Anxiety disorder 2.34 0.30 1.29 4.25 .005
Personality disorder 3.42 0.26 2.07 5.65 <.001
Number of physical comorbidities (ref = no comorbidity)      
 1 to 2 0.41 0.97 0.06 2.77 .363
 3 to 5 0.67 1.00 0.09 4.78 .689
 6 and over 9.86 0.95 1.53 63.70 .016
Concomitant substance abuse and mental disorders 0.48 0.55 0.16 1.39 .175
Concomitant substance abuse and physical disorders 1.40 0.72 0.34 5.76 .642
Concomitant mental and physical disorders 4.43 0.92 0.73 26.78 .105
  1. a After Benjamini-Hocheberg’s correction, the significance level is fixed at p = .007