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Table 1 Effects of maternal antenatal stress and anxiety on outcomes for infants and children

From: Early origins of mental disorder - risk factors in the perinatal and infant period

Infant and child outcomes  
Infant temperament  
 • Reduced attention regulation at 3 and 8 months [1]
 • Greater child fearfulness scores 14–19 months [2]
 
Development and cognitive functioning  
 • Lower Bayley Scales Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychosocial Development Index (PDI) scores at 8 months [3]
 • Lower Bayley Scales MDI scores at 1–2 years [4]
 • Lower productive language scores at 2 years [5]
 • Poorer verbal intelligence and language skills at 5 ½ years [6]
 • Lower inhibitory control at 6–9 years [7]
 • Impulsive response pattern on cognitive tasks at 14/15 years [8]
 
Emotional and behavioural problems  
 • Greater total problem behaviour at 27 months, 4 years and 81 months [911]
 • Greater hyperactivity/inattention in boys at 8–9 years [12]
 • Greater externalising problems 8–9 years [13]
 • Greater anxiety aged 6–9 years [14]
 • Greater internalising difficulties in 7–8 years [15]
 • Greater depressive symptoms in adolescence [16]
 
Structural brain changes  
 • Reduced head circumference corrected for birth weight [17, 18]
 • Reduced grey matter in prefrontal cortex, medial and lateral temporal lobe, postcentral gyrus and cerebellum on MRI scan at 6–9 years [19]