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Table 3 Associations between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy

From: Prenatal smoking exposure and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD: a finnish nationwide population-based cohort study

  Frequencies OR (95 % CI)
Maternal smoking status Cases n (%) Controls n (%) Unadjusted Adjusteda
Not smoking during pregnancy 7068 (69.7 %) 33,158 (84.7 %) Reference Reference
Smoking during pregnancy (Yes/No) 3064 (30.3 %) 5653 (15.3 %) 2.44 (2.32–2.58) 1.75 (1.65–1.86)
Smoking after first trimester 2839 (28.1 %) 5043 (13.7 %) 2.54 (2.41–2.68) 1.81 (1.71–1.93)
Smoking only during first trimester 225 (2.2 %) 610 (1.7 %) 1.66 (1.41–1.94) 1.25 (1.05–1.48)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for maternal and paternal psychiatric history, maternal substance use history, maternal and paternal age at birth, maternal socioeconomic status, birth weight for gestational age, number of previous births and maternal marital status