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Table 4 Associations between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy among comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions

From: Prenatal smoking exposure and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD: a finnish nationwide population-based cohort study

  Cases exposed to smoking during pregnancy n (%) Controls exposed to smoking during pregnancy n (%) OR (95 % CI)
Unadjusted
OR (95 % CI)
Adjusteda
ADHD + Mental Retardation (N = 374) 106 (28.3 %) 173 (12.6 %) 2.79 (2.10–3.72) 1.93 (1.38–2.69)
ADHD + ASD (n = 1134) 299 (26.4 %) 593 (14.3 %) 2.14 (1.82–2.51) 1.59 (1.33–1.91)
ADHD + Tourette (n = 172) 45 (26.2 %) 89 (14.3 %) 2.06 (1.36–3.13) 1.74 (1.06–2.86)
ADHD + CD/ODD (n = 2339) 950 (40.6 %) 1308 (15.4 %) 3.96 (3.55–4.41) 2.54 (2.24–2.88)b
ADHD + Learning and coordination disorders (n = 2957) 799 (27.0 %) 1726 (16.0 %) 1.98 (1.80–2.19) 1.51 (1.35–1.68)
ADHD without comorbidities (n = 3136) 865 (27.6 %) 1764 (15.4 %) 2.11 (1.92–2.32) 1.59 (1.43–1.77)
  1. Reference category in each group were their designated controls
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. aAdjusted for:maternal and paternal psychiatric history, maternal substance abuse history, maternal and paternal age at birth, maternal socioeconomic status, birth weight for gestational age, number of previous births and maternal marital status
  4. bOR was significantly different from “ADHD without comorbidities”, p < 0.001