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Table 5 The comparisons of associations between maternal smoking and groups with ADHD and comorbid conditions and with ADHD without co-morbid conditions

From: Prenatal smoking exposure and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD: a finnish nationwide population-based cohort study

  Unadjusted OR
(95 % CI)
Adjusted ORa
(95 % CI)
ADHD + Mental Retardation (n = 374) 1.32 (0.98–1.79) 1.32 (0.96–1.83)
ADHD + ASD (n = 1134) 1.01 (0.84–1.22) 0.98 (0.80–1.20)
ADHD + Tourette (n = 172) 0.98 (0.64–1.50) 1.06 (0.67–1.68)
ADHD + CD/ODD (n = 2339) 1.87 (1.62–2.16) 1.80 (1.55–2.11)
ADHD + Learning and coordination disorders (n = 2957) 0.94 (0.82–1.07) 0.96 (0.83–1.11)
ADHD without comorbidities (n = 3136) Reference Reference
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for: maternal and paternal psychiatric history, maternal substance abuse history, maternal and paternal age at birth, maternal socioeconomic status, birth weight for gestational age and number of previous births