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Table 1 Overview of Studies on Psychological Interventions for Reduction of FoC and Pregnancy-related Anxiety

From: ‘I’ve Changed My Mind’, Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting (MBCP) for pregnant women with a high level of fear of childbirth and their partners: study protocol of the quasi-experimental controlled trial

Research group Research design, (n), population Type of experimental intervention Primary outcome post intervention
Duncan & Bardacke (2010) [40] United States of America. Uncontrolled pre- and post-study. (n = 27). Community sample of pregnant women. Nine 3-hours group sessions of MBCP led by a midwife -mindfulness instructor. Reduced anxiety (PAS) with a large effect within the EI group: Cohen’s d = 0.81, p < 0.0001
Fontein et al. (2016) [38] The Netherlands. Non-randomized trial. (n = 433). Pregnant women with maternal distress. WazzUp Mama?! internet-delivered programme supported by midwives vs. CAU. EI > CAU reduced anxiety (PRAQ) with a moderate effect between the groups: Cohen’s d = 0.64, p < 0.001
Goodman et al. (2014) [41] United States of America. Uncontrolled pre- and post-study. (n = 23). Pregnant women with anxiety symptoms. Eight 2-hours group sessions of CALM led by a mindfulness instructor. Reduced anxiety (BAI) with a large effect within the EI group: Cohen’s d = 0.83, p < 0.001
Guardino et al. (2014) [42] United States of America. Randomized controlled trial. (n = 47). Pregnant women with stress. Six 2-hours group sessions of MAPS led by a mindfulness instructor vs. CAU. EI > CAU reduced anxiety (PSA) with a large effect between the groups: Cohen’s d = 0.77, p < 0.05
Nieminen et al. (2016) [39] Sweden. Prospective cohort study. (n = 28). Nulliparous pregnant women with sever FoC. Eight weeks ICBT programme supported by a therapist. Reduced FoC (W-DEQ-A) with a large effect within the EI group: Cohen’s d = 0.95, p < 0.0005
Rouhe et al. (2012) [36] Sweden. Randomized controlled trial. (n = 371). Pregnant women with a sever FoC. Six 2-hours session of psychoeducational group therapy led by psychologists vs. CAU. EI > CAU reduced FoC (W-DEQ-B) with a small effect between the groups: Cohen’s d = 0.35, p = 0.02
Thoohill et al. (2014) [37] Australie. Randomized controlled trial. (n = 198). Pregnant women reporting FoC. Two psychoeducational telephone sessions led by trained midwives vs. CAU. EI > CAU reduced FoC (W-DEQ-A) with a moderate effect between the groups: Cohen’s d = 0.59, p < 0.001
Vieten & Astin (2008) [43] United States of America. Randomized controlled waitlist trial. (n = 31). Pregnant women with mood concerns. Eight 2-hours group sessions of Mindful Motherhood led by a psychologist-mindfulness instructor vs. CAU. EI > CAU reduced anxiety (STAI) with a large effect between the groups: Cohen’s d = 0.85, p < 0.04
  1. Note: BAI Back Anxiety Inventory, CALM Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully, CAU care-as-usual, EI experimental intervention, ICBT Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, MAPS Mindful Awareness Practice Sessions, MBCP Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting, PAS Pregnancy Anxiety Scale, PRAQ Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire, PSA Pregnancy Specific Anxiety, STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, W-DEQ-A Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire-version A, W-DEQ-B Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire-version B