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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies in the meta-analysis

From: Insomnia and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Study source Study name Sex Insomnia measurement DSM-IV-TR insomnia criteria satisfied Depression measurement Follow-up time (months) Number of follow-up assessments Baseline age (years) No of participants Covariates
Ford and Kamerow, 1989, USA [9] National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study M/F Diagnostic Interview Schedule sd§, dur and day Diagnostic Interview Schedule 12 1 Range 18+;
mean 45.79
7,954 Age, sex, socioeconomic status, race, and marital status
Brabbins et al., 1993, UK [33] None M/F Geriatric Mental State sd and dur Geriatric Mental State 36 1 Range 65+; mean 69.76 701 No covariate adjustment
Breslau et al., 1996, USA [34] None M/F NIHM Diagnostic Interview Schedule sd and dur NIHM Diagnostic Interview Schedule 42 1 Range 21–30; mean 26.14 979 Sex, hypersomnia, and number of other depressive symptoms
Chang et al. 1997 USA [18] Johns Hopkins Precursors Study M Habit Survey Questionnaire sd Checklists medical reports and self-reports 408 7 Range NA; mean 26.3 941 Age at graduation, class year, parental history of clinical depression, coffee consumption, and measures of temperament
Weissman et al. 1997 USA [10] National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) M/F Questionnaires sd and dur Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) 12 1 Range 18+; mean 48.23 7,113 Age, sex, and site
Foley et al. 1999 USA [35] None M/F Interview sd CES-D 36 3 Range 65+; mean 80.09 6,899 No covariate adjustment
Johnson et al. 2000 USA [36] None M/F 1 item from the CBCL sd and dur CBCL and TRF 60 1 Range NA; mean 6 717 Sex, birth weight, and mother’s history of MDD using generalized estimation equations
Mallon et al. 2000 Sweden [37] County of Dalarna registry M/F Uppsala Sleep Inventory sd HADS 144 1 Range 45–65; mean 55 1,244 Smoking, depression, and insomnia
Roberts et al. 2000 USA [17] Alameda Country study M/F 2 Items from the DSM-12D sd 12 Items from the DSM-12D 12 1 Range 50+; mean 64.9 2,370 Age, sex, marital status, social isolation, education, financial problems, problems with daily activities, and heave drinking
Roberts et al. 2002 USA [38] None M/F Questionnaires sd, dur and day Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 12 1 Range 11–17; mean 15 3,136 Age, values of the functioning measures at baseline, sex, parental education, and insomnia level
Hein et al. 2003 Germany [39] None M/F Composite International Diagnostic Interview sd Composite International Diagnostic Interview 60 1 Range 55+; mean 60 664 No covariate adjustment
Perlis et al. 2006 USA [40] None M/F HAMD (sleep items) sd SCID and HAMD 12 1 Range 60+; mean 72 147 No covariate adjustment
Morphy et al. 2007 UK [41] None M/F Jenkins Sleep Scale sd HADS 12 1 Range 18+; mean 50 1,589 Age, sex, social class, anxiety (except when anxiety is the problem of interest), depression (except when depression is the problem of interest), and pain areas (except when widespread pain is the problem of interest)
Buysse et al. 2008 Switzerland [20] The Zurich Study M/F SPIKE and visual analogue scales sd, dur and day SPIKE 240 6 Range NA; mean 19.5 278 Concurrent MDE at the time of insomnia diagnosis
Cho et al. 2008 USA [19] Depression Substudy M/F PSQI sd, dur and day SCID and BDI 24 3 Range 60+; mean 69 329 Group status, depression symptoms, medical disease, age, sex, marital status, and education
Jansson-Fröjmark and Lindblom.2008 Sweden [42] None M/F Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaires and Uppsala Sleep Inventory sd, dur and day HADS 12 1 Range 20–60; mean 41.3 1,489 Age, sex
Roane and Taylor. 2008 USA [23] National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) M/F In-home interview sd and dur In-home interview 78 1 Range 12–18; mean 16 3,582 Sex
Kim et al. 2009 Korea [21] Kwangju community study M/F Interview sd, dur and day Geriatric Mental State 24 1 Range 65+; mean 72.2 792 Age, sex, education, housing, past occupation, current employment, living area, life events, social deficit, physical activity, GMS organicity, GMS anxiety, and daily drinking.
Szklo-Coxe et al. 2010 USA [22] Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study M/F PSG + interview and self-reported symptoms sd Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale 44 1 Range 33–71; mean 53.6 555 Age, sex, chronic health conditions, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, use of hypnotic agents, and BMI
Yokoyama et al. 2010 Japan [43] Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging: (NUJLSOA) M/F   Questionnaire 11-item short form of the CES-D 36 1 Range 69+; mean 73.1 3,065 Age, sex, educational history, place of residence, sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, discomfort feeling in the legs, subjective sleep sufficiency, psychological stress, self-rated health, and activities of daily living
Jaussent et al. 2011 France [45] French Three-City Study M/F Questionnaire and clinical interview sd CES-D 48 2 Range 65+; mean ≥ 60 3,824 Age, center, CES-D baseline, sex, education, living alone, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking, chronic disease, past major depression, disability, prescribed sleep medication intake, and homeopathic and non-prescription treatments for sleep
Almeida et al. 2011 Australia [44] Health In Men Study (HIMS) M Questionnaire sd Medical records (based on ICD-10) 72 1 Range 70+; mean ≥ 60 5,127 Age, education group, migrant status, living alone, low social support group, smoking group, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, chronic respiratory diseases, coronary artery disease, stroke, and cancer
Marques et al. 2011 Portugal [46] None F Interview sd, dur and day DSM-IV 5 1 Range 18–44; mean 29.8 382 Negative affect, positive affect, and lifetime depression
Thomée et al. 2011 Sweden [47] None M/F A single item adapted from the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire sd and dur Two items from the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Prime-MD) 12 1 Range 20–24; mean < 60 1,455 Relationship status, educational level, and occupation
Okajima et al. 2012 Japan [48] None M/F PSQI sd, dur and day CES-D 24 1 Range 20+; mean 57.4 1,577 Age, sex, disease currently treated, habitual alcohol ingestion, smoking habit, and living alone
Salo et al. 2012 Finland [49] Finnish Public Sector Study M/F The 4-item Jenkins Sleep Problem Scale sd Health register and medical records 42 1 Range 19–70; mean 43.9 40,791 Age, sex, socioeconomic position, night/shift work, health behaviors, baseline physical health, use of pain killers, psychological distress, and anxiety
Skapinakis et al. 2013 UK [53] UK National Psychiatric Morbidity survey M/F The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) sd and dur The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) 18 1 Range 16–74; mean 44.75 2,406 Age, sex, marital status, educational qualifications,occupational class, employment status, and other psychological symptoms
Gehrman et al. 2013 USA [51] Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) M/F 2 items from PHQ and PCL-C, and questionnaires sd and dur PHQ-9 84 2 Range NA; mean 33.1 8,902 Sleep duration, birth year, sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, and marital status
Suh et al. 2013 Korea [54] Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) M/F Questionnaire sd and dur BDI 72 3 Range 43–73; mean 52.3 1,089 Age, sex, education level, employment status, marital status, physical health, smoking status, heavy drinking, and time interactions with each covariate
Paudel et al. 2013 USA [52] Prospective Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study M PSQI sd, dur and day Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) 40.8 1 Range 67+; mean 75.9 2,352 Age, clinic site, baseline GDS score, health status, education, use of benzodiazepines, alcohol consumption, cognitive function, walks for exercise, impairments in activities of daily living and certain medical conditions
Campbell et al. 2013 UK [50] North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP) M/F Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire sd and dur HADS 72 2 Range 50+; mean ≥ 60 2,373 Age, sex, marital status, employment status, alcohol intake, smoking status, and BMI
Jackson et al. 2014 Australia [55] Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, (ALSWH) F Questionnaire None (sleeping difficulties in the last 12 months) Questionnaire 108 3 Range 22–27; mean < 60 5,702 Education level, body weight dissatisfaction, history of abuse, and binge drinking in 2000
Sivertsen et al. 2014 Norway [56] Nord-Trøndelag health study HUNT Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3) M/F Questionnaire sd, dur and day HADS 132 1 Range 19–67; mean 45.3 (HUNT2) Range 20–89; mean 56.1 (HUNT3) 44,270 Age, sex, education, angina, arthrosis, asthma, ankylosing spondylitis, cancer, diabetes, fibromyalgia, headache, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke and whiplash at baseline.
Dørheim et al. 2014 Norway [32] Akershus Birth Cohort F BIS sd, dur and day EPDS 3.5 2 Range 17.4–47.5; mean 31.5 2,088 No covariate adjustment
  1. Abbreviations: NA not available, F female, M male, NIHM National Institute of Mental Health, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist, EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, GMS Geriatric Mental State diagnostic schedule, TRF Teacher Report Form, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, DSM-12D 12-item scale for DSM depression, HAMD Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, SPIKE Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of Social Consequences of Psychic Disturbances for Epidemiology, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BIS The Bergen Insomnia Scale, PSG polysomnographic assessment, day daytime consequences criterion
  2. §sd, sleep difficulties criterion
  3. dur, duration criterion