Skip to main content

Table 3 Frequency of responses about Typical Signs, Causes, and Responses & Treatment for madness in each site

From: Concepts of madness in diverse settings: a qualitative study from the INTREPID project

   India Nigeria Trinidad Totals
Codes N % n % n % n %
Typical signs
Somatic disturbances in sleep, appetite & reports of physical problems 10 10 % 6 6 % 12 9 % 28 8 %
Behavioural Decline in function
 not functioning, being unable to work, poor self care 11 11 % 16 16 % 17 12 % 44 13 %
Isolative
 withdrawing from interaction 6 6 % 9 9 % 8 6 % 23 7 %
Self-harm
 deliberately harming oneself, attempting suicide 4 4 % 4 4 % 6 4 % 14 4 %
Visibly disturbed (1)
 violent, assaultive behaviours 19 19 % 26 25 % 19 13 % 64 19 %
Visibly disturbed (2)
 being loud, running around, exposing, collecting rubbish 30 29 % 23 23 % 42 30 % 95 28 %
Psychological  loss of interest, sadness, guilt, feeling angry, hostile, etc. 7 7 % 3 3 % 8 6 % 18 5 %
Suspicions
 persecutions, referential delusions 7 7 % 3 3 % 2 1 % 12 3 %
Thoughts & cognition
 bombarded with thoughts, thought of suicide/killing, problems with memory, concentration 4 4 % 1 1 % 6 4 % 11 3 %
Hallucinations
 hearing voices of persons who are not present 4 4 % 11 11 % 21 15 % 36 10 %
  Total 102 100 % 102 100 % 141 100 % 345 100 %
Causes Don’t know / Other 4 6 % 2 2 % 4 4 % 11 4 %
Spiritual/Supernatural 26 38 % 24 25 % 57 46 % 107 37 %
Psychological
 worry, thinking too much, responses to life events identified as “psychological” 9 13 % 11 11 % 5 4 % 25 9 %
Social
 individual’s social environment and social experiences, including family relationships, childhood experiences etc. 12 18 % 17 18 % 24 19 % 53 18 %
Substance use 1 1 % 16 16 % 13 10 % 30 10 %
Biological (including genetic) 16 24 % 27 28 % 20 16 % 63 22 %
  Total 68 100 % 97 100 % 124 100 % 289 100 %
Responses & treatment Folk 57 45 % 73 52 % 130 53 % 260 51 %
Professional 68 53 % 46 33 % 74 30 % 188 37 %
Popular 0 0 % 21 15 % 39 16 % 60 12 %
Total 125 100 % 140 100 % 243 100 % 508 100 %