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Table 3 Comparisons of risk and protective factors for suicide attempts between non-overdose and overdose cases (N = 485)

From: Profile differences between overdose and non-overdose suicide attempts in a multi-ethnic Asian society

Factors Overdose Non-overdose χ2 P
Risk Factors
 History of psychiatric illnesses 62.0 66.6 0.57 0.45
 Family history of psychiatric illnesses 85.5 86.1 0.01 0.91
 Living alone 92.9 80.5 11.70 <0.01**
 Alcohol or substance misuse 82.8 70.8 5.82 0.02*
 Ongoing interpersonal problems 41.8 36.1 0.85 0.36
 Lack of confidantes 68.8 51.3 8.48 <0.01**
 Serious physical illnesses 85.8 80.5 1.35 0.25
 Poor coping skills 67.9 69.4 0.06 0.80
 Severe financial problems 81.0 77.7 0.41 0.52
 Unemployment 77.1 68.0 2.77 0.10
Protective Factors
 Faith in a religion 44.3 51.3 1.22 0.27
 Resolution of precipitants 80.7 68.0 6.03 0.01*
 Receiving support from dependents 49.4 55.5 0.93 0.34
 Expression of regret 28.8 20.8 1.98 0.16
 Positive plan for the future 34.0 37.5 0.32 0.57
 Willingness to seek help 13.9 25.0 5.75 0.02*
 Good emotional support 24.7 38.8 6.34 0.01*
  1. (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01)