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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria, systematic review on pre-discharge factors and psychiatric readmission

From: Pre-discharge factors predicting readmissions of psychiatric patients: a systematic review of the literature

  Included papers Excluded papers
Types of studies Quantitative studies with some quantitative measures of association between pre-discharge variables and readmission of psychiatric patients Qualitative studies, case reports and papers not including original data, such as editorials, letters to the Editor, commentaries, reviews and meta-analyses. Studies that were not published as full reports or whose full text was not available.
Language Papers published in English, German, Spanish, Italian and French  
Participants Studies examining adult populations, i.e., the mean/median age of at least 18 as criterion or - when it was not possible to have direct information on that - it clearly concerned an adult population.
The study participants had to be originally admitted with a psychiatric diagnosis (for example, if diagnosed using the ICD-10 system, including all diagnoses that belong to the class F00–F99 (World Health Organization, 2011)) or for a psychiatric problem (assuming this criterion as satisfied if the hospital/unit was clearly a psychiatric hospital or inpatient psychiatric unit or the authors stated that the admission episode is an acute psychiatric one).
 
Outcomes   Papers reporting only analyses on other kinds of outcomes, even if connected to readmission in inpatient care (i.e., related to time to readmission or cumulative Los or number/frequency of readmissions) - results on analyses of these outcomes in the included papers were disregarded as well-.
Other exclusion criteria   The baseline did not correspond to individual patient’s discharge from hospital; it was not clear whether there was a discharge at all, or the same time-period for admissions and readmissions was considered; lack of information on the direction of any association; exclusion of readmitted patients from analysis due to modelling strategy; model either inadequate or not described; not clearly reported time of follow-up (or differing across patients with analyses not taking such variability into account); inclusion of patients dead during the index-admission among the non-readmitted; only evaluating the (comparative) efficacy of a specific drug in a trial without other predictors of interest.