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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the participants

From: What is the impact of child abuse on gray matter abnormalities in individuals with major depressive disorder: a case control study

  MDD CONT   Post hoc**
MDD with abusea (N = 23) MDD without abuseb (N = 11) Healthy controlsc (N = 26) p* Comparison (p)
Male/Female 3/20 2/9 7/19 0.484   
Age (years) 32.3 ± 7.4 32.7 ± 8.5 31.4 ± 7.6 0.866   
Education (years) 14.8 ± 2.1 16.0 ± 2.3 16.0 ± 1.6 0.090   
Beck depression inventory score 32.3 ± 11.8 27.6 ± 5.2 3.0 ± 3.4 <0.001 a>c <0.001
b>c <0.001
Early-life stress factor score
 Emotional abuse 12.3 ± 4.6 1.7 ± 1.6 1.9 ± 2.0 <0.001 a>b <0.001
a>c <0.001
 Physical abuse 7.4 ± 5.6 0.9 ± 0.9 1.3 ± 0.9 <0.001 a>b <0.001
a>c <0.001
 Sexual abuse 0.7 ± 1.0 0.2 ± 0.4 0.05 ± 0.1 0.003 a>c 0.002
 Neglect 3.1 ± 3.9 0.2 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.6 <0.001 a>b 0.008
a>c <0.001
 Domestic violence 1.6 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.3 <0.001 a>c
b>c
<0.001
0.038
  1. Note: CONT control group, MDD major depressive disorder patient group
  2. *Fisher’s exact test for gender variable was done; Analyses of variance test for continuous variable were done
  3. **post-hoc test with Bonferroni’s method (a: MDD with abuse, b: MDD without abuse, c: healthy controls)
  4. p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant