Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of characteristics between bipolar patients with and without metabolic syndrome

From: Metabolic syndrome and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with bipolar disorder

  Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 42) Patients without metabolic syndrome (n = 101) df, p-value
Age (year) 47.5 ± 11.2 43.7 ± 12.2 n.s.
Gender (F, %) 67.9% 69.8% n.s.
Education (more than 12 years %) 33.3% 33.7% n.s.
Occupation (regular work %) 28.6% 33.7% n.s.
Age at onset of bipolar disorder 31.5 ± 12.7 28.4 ± 11.7 n.s.
Treatment Duration of bipolar disorder 13.9 ± 11.2 13.1 ± 10.7 n.s.
Smoking (%) 31% 23.8% n.s.
Times of hospitalization 4.1 ± 4.9 2.5 ± 2.9 df = 47.7,P = 0.024
History of suicide attempt (%) 42.9% 47.5% n.s.
Subtype of bipolar disorder (bipolar I %) 69% 59.4% n.s.
Pharmacological treatment groups 52.4% 43.6% n.s.
 [mood stabilizers only] 9.5% 33.7% df = 2,P = 0.012
 [atypical antipsychotics only] 21.4% 15.8%  
 [atypical antipsychotics plus mood stabilizers] 69% 50.5%  
First mood episode with mania/hypomania (%) 52.5% 32.0% df = 1,P = 0.033
Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) 5.3 ± 5.0 4.7 ± 4.9 n.s.
Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) 8.2 ± 7.4 9.2 ± 9.1 n.s.
Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) 41.6 ± 12.6 39.4 ± 11.6 n.s.
Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) 3.6 ± 4.7 2.1 ± 4.0 df = 67.6,P = 0.046
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) 1.8 ± 4.4 0.5 ± 2.4 df = 51.5,P = 0.021
Barnes Akathesia scale (BANS) 0.1 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.9 n.s.
Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) 5.7 ± 3.3 4.7 ± 4.0 n.s.
Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI) 16.2 ± 4.9 18.1 ± 4.4 df = 140,P = 0.027
Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) 67.1 ± 11.7 71.5 ± 11.0 df = 141,P = 0.035
Level of lithium (n = 33) 0.51 ± 0.21 0.74 ± 0.62 n.s.
Level of valproic acid (n = 52) 55.0 ± 35.3 40.8 ± 28.5 n.s.
Level of carbamazapine (n = 4) -- 6.2 ± 1.7 --
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
Conceptual level response %
34.2 ± 12.5 41.4 ± 11.7 df = 104,P = 0.007
Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.2 ± 4.2 24.8 ± 4.8 df = 141,P < 0.0001
waist circumference > 90 cm in males or > 80 cm in females 100% 42.6% df = 1,P < 0.0001
fasting serum triglyceride levels150 mg/dL 69% 14.9% df = 1,P < 0.0001
fasting high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol < 40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women 73.8% 13.9% df = 1,P < 0.0001
blood pressure130/85 mmHg 78.6% 28.7% df = 1,P < 0.0001
fasting glucose100 mg/dL 47.6% 10.9% df = 1,P < 0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 97.1 ± 9.7 81.3 ± 11.2 df = 100,P < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 131.5 ± 17.1 120.6 ± 16.9 df = 141,P = 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 82.1 ± 10.5 75.9 ± 11.4 df = 141,P = 0.003
Triglyceride (microg/ dL) 198.4 ± 122.1 101.4 ± 69.4 df = 52.4,P < 0.0001
High density lipoprotein (HDL) (microg/ dL) 41.6 ± 9.3 60.9 ± 15.6 df = 123.6,P < 0.0001
Glucose (microg/ dL) 101.8 ± 37.7 87.7 ± 16.9 df = 46.7,P = 0.026
Insulin (pg/ml) 13.7 ± 10.7 8.0 ± 13.6 df = 133,P = 0.019