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Table 1 Characteristics of the PTSD-SP group (n = 74) and the PTSD group (n = 107)

From: Secondary psychotic features in refugees diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder: a retrospective cohort study

   PTSD-SP PTSD  
Characteristics   N (%)/mean
(±SD)
N (%)/mean
(±SD)
Chi-square test
Male   48 (64.9%) 56 (52.3%) P = 0.094
Female   26 (35.1%) 51 (47.7%)  
Age (3rd May 2013)   44.8 (±8.8) 45.0 (±9.8)  
Region of origin Countries N (%) N (%)  
Eastern Asia China 0 1 (0.94%)  
Southern Asia Afghanistan, Iran, Sri Lanka 15 (20.3%) 32 (29.9%)  
Western Asia Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, Turkey 45 (60.8%) 55 (51.4%)  
Eastern Europe Russia 1 (1.35%) 0  
Southern Europe Albania, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia 9 (12.2%) 12 (11.2%)  
Eastern Africa Eritrea, Rwanda, Somalia 2 (2.7%) 4 (3.74%)  
Northern Africa Algeria, Morocco 1 (1.35%) 1 (0.94%)  
Unknown   1 (1.35%) 2 (1.87%)  
Comorbidity ICD-10 codes N (%) N (%) Chi-square test
Depressive disorders DF32.0, DF32.1, DF32.2, DF32.3, DF32.9,
DF33.1, DF33.2, DF33.3, DF33.8, DF33.9
65 (87.8%) 91 (85.1%) P = 0.593
Other affective disorder DF31.6, DF34.1, DF34.8 0 4 (3.74%)  
Personality change after
catastrophic experience
DF62.0 24 (32.4%) 17 (15.9%) P = 0.009*
Mental and behavioural disorders
due to psychoactive substance
use
DF10.1, DF10.2, DF11.2, DF15.1, DF19.2 2 (2.70%) 3 (2.80%)  
Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and
delusional disorders
DF22.9, DF29.9 3 (4.05%) 0  
Other anxiety disorders DF41.0, DF41.1 3 (4.05%) 5 (4.67%)  
Other personality changes DF60.0, DF60.1, DF61.0, DF62.1, DF68.0 2 (2.70%) 3 (2.80%)  
No-comorbidity to PTSD   6 (8.11%) 9 (8.41%)  
Psychiatric medication baseline Generic name N (%) N (%) Chi-square test
Antipsychotics flupentixol, chlorprothixen, quetiapin,
aripiprazol, olanzapine, risperdon, unspecified
14 (18.9%) 11 (10.3%) P = 0.098
Antidepressants SSRI, SNRI, TCA, NaSSA, unspecified 35 (47.3%) 46 (43.0%) P = 0.567
Benzodiazepines   10 (13.5%) 24 (22.4%) P = 0.131
No psychopharmacological
treatment
  30 (40.5%) 50 (46.7%) P = 0.410
Type of trauma exposure   N (%) N (%) Chi-square test
Exposed to torture
PTSD-SP (n = 69), PTSD (n = 92)
  47 (63.5%) 39 (36.4%) P = 0.001*
Experienced imprisonment
PTSD-SP (n = 69), PTSD (n = 92)
  44 (59.5%) 38 (35.5%) P = 0.005*
Lived in a war zone
PTSD-SP (n = 69), PTSD (n = 91)
  63 (85.1%) 88 (82.2%) P = 0.142
Lived in a refugee camp
PTSD-SP (n = 69), PTSD (n = 85)
  19 (25.6%) 26 (24.3%) P = 0.679
Soldier in war
PTSD-SP (n = 68),PTSD (n = 87)
  23 (31.1%) 23 (21.5%) P = 0.318
  1. * = P < 0.05. ±SD illustrates the standard deviation of the age. Number of patients analysed within each group is displayed as n = xx in “traumaticevents”. The percentages illustrate the amount of patients in the corresponding group
  2. Bold data are the subheadings