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Table 1 Categorized variables and their distributions according to the level of personality disturbance

From: Clinical importance of personality difficulties: diagnostically sub-threshold personality disorders

     No personality disturbance Personality difficulty Simple personality disorder Complex/severe personality disorder  
Variable   n % n % n % n % n % Pa
Gender (n = 352) Female 118 33.5 37 27.4 18 35.3 24 30.0 39 45.4 0.042
Male 234 66.5 98 72.6 33 64.7 56 70.0 47 54.6
Basic education (n = 354) Comprehensive school dropout 26 7.1 15 11.2 1 2.0 4 5.0 6 6.9 0.007
Comprehensive school 227 62.4 67 50.0 36 70.6 49 61.3 64 73.6
Upper secondary school 111 30.5 52 38.3 14 27.5 27 33.8 17 19.5
Studies (n = 335) No vocational education 84 24.4 18 14.0 9 18.4 23 30.3 30 37.0 0.001
Vocational education 143 41.5 53 41.1 27 55.1 31 40.8 32 39.5
Polytechnic degree 92 26.7 44 34.1 9 18.4 20 26.3 13 16.1
Academic degree 26 7.5 14 10.9 4 8.2 2 2.6 6 7.4
Main occupation (n = 364) Working 92 25.3 43 31.6 14 27.5 14 17.7 19 22.1 0.030
Rehabilitation/Sick leave 162 44.5 53 39.0 26 51.0 34 43.0 44 51.2
Child-care leave 21 5.8 11 8.1 4 7.8 2 2.5 3 3.5
Other 89 24.5 29 21.3 7 13.7 29 36.7 20 23.3
Dwelling (n = 358) Single 103 28.0 36 26.3 13 25.5 18 22.2 33 37.5 0.19
Cohabitation 263 71.5 99 72.3 38 74.5 63 77.8 55 62.5
Supported housing 2 0.5 2 1.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Financial situation (n = 354) Good/Moderate 101 28.4 54 40.9 19 37.3 12 15.8 16 18.8 <0.001
Neither 108 30.4 45 34.1 10 19.6 28 36.8 25 29.4
Quite poor/Poor 135 38.1 33 25.0 22 43.1 36 47.4 44 51.8
Number of children (n = 360) None or one 192 51.9 71 51.1 27 52.9 45 55.6 49 55.7 0.89
Two or more 178 48.1 68 48.9 24 47.1 36 44.4 39 44.3
Number of chronic illnesses (n = 360) None 121 32.7 49 35.3 12 23.5 26 32.1 25 28.4 0.42
One or more 249 67.3 90 64.8 39 76.5 55 67.9 63 71.6
Number of earlier treatment contacts (n = 289) One 152 52.6 60 58.3 25 56.8 40 59.7 27 36.0 0.047
Two 86 29.8 30 29.1 12 27.3 15 22.4 29 38.7
Three or more 51 17.6 13 12.6 7 15.9 12 17.9 19 25.3
  1. aChi-square test