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Table 4 Detailed NPR-registered International Classification of Diseases codes (ICD-10) on axes I, II and V in children with ADHD; comparing MoBa participants (n = 1595) and the general child population (All) (n = 11 119)

From: ADHD, comorbid disorders and psychosocial functioning: How representative is a child cohort study? Findings from a national patient registry

Axis I, psychiatric disorders % MoBa % All Statistics
 Affective disorders (F30–F39) 0.8 0.9 z = 0.42, p = 0.67
 Anxiety disorders incl. OCD and SM (F40–F42, F94.0) 2.1 2.9 z = 1.90, p = 0.57
 Adjustment disorders (F43) 1.2 2.3 z = 2.93, p = 0.03
 Sleep disorders (F51) 0.6 0.5 z = 0.57, p = 0.57
 Autism Spectrum Disorders (F84) 8.3 7.2 z = 1.70, p = 0.009
 Conduct disorders (F91) 4.8 4.2 z = 1.20, p = 0.23
 Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions (F92) 2.2 1.9 z = 0.88, p = 0.38
 Emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (F93) 3.6 4.3 z = 1.38, p = 0.17
 Attachment disorders (F94.1-2) 1.5 2.7 z = 2.96, p = 0.003
 Tics (F95) 8.5 7.5 z = 0.52, p = 0.13
 Elimination disorders (F98) 3.1 2.6 z = 0.42, p = 0.21
Axis II, learning disabilities
 Specific disorders of speech and language (F80) 7.8 7.4 z = 0.61, p = 0.54
 Specific disorder of scholastic skills (F81) 8.6 10.4 z = 2.36, p = 0.02
 Specific disorder of motor function (F82) 2.8 2.1 z = 1.95, p = 0.05
 Mixed specific developmental disorders (F83) ≥ 2 F80-F82) 2.4 2.4 z = 0, p = 1
Axis V, associated abnormal psychosocial situations % MoBa % All  
 1 Abnormal intrafamilial relationships 6.6 8.7 z = 2.98, p = 0.003
 2 Mental disorder, deviance or handicap in the child’s primary support group 14.4 17.0 z = 2.76, p = 0.005
 3 Inadequate or distorted intrafamilial communication 2.4 3.1 z = 1.61, p = 0.11
 4 Abnormal qualities of upbringing 2.6 3.3 z = 0.57, p = 0.12
 5 Abnormal immediate environment 23.1 29 z = 5.19, p < 0.001
 6 Acute life events 4.4 7.1 z = 4.20, p < 0.001
 7 Societal stressors 0.8 2 z = 3.42, p = 0.006
 8 Chronic interpersonal stress associated with school/work 4.1 5.1 z = 1.82, p = 0.07
 9 Stressful events/situations resulting from the child’s own disorder/disability 5.1 5.8 z = 1.20, p = 0.23
  1. NPR Norwegian Patient Registry; MoBa The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study