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Table 3 Comparison of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses among depressed eating disorder patients with or without lifetime hypomania/mania episode

From: Comparison of associated features and drug treatment between co-occurring unipolar and bipolar disorders in depressed eating disorder patients

Variables Eating disorders with MDD Eating disorders with bipolar II disorder Eating disorders with bipolar I disorder 2 vs. 1 3 vs. 1 3 vs. 2
(1) (2) (3)
(n = 133) (n = 55) (n = 39)
N (%) N (%) N (%) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Comorbid diagnosis
 Generalized anxiety disorder 50 (37.6) 27 (49.1) 20 (51.3) 1.31 (0.68, 2.54) 1.50 (0.71, 3.17) 1.17 (0.49, 2.79)
 Social phobia 46 (34.6) 23 (41.8) 18 (46.2) 1.29 (0.65, 2.55) 1.63 (0.76, 3.50) 1.21 (0.52, 2.82)
 Panic disorder 16 (12.0) 14 (25.5) 12 (30.8) 2.02 (0.89, 4.60) 2.73 (1.12, 6.69) 1.47 (0.56, 3.80)
 Agoraphobia 27 (20.3) 13 (23.6) 15 (38.5) 0.97 (0.44, 2.11) 2.14(0.95, 4.83) 2.25 (0.87, 5.83)
 Obsessive compulsive disorder 38 (28.6) 19 (34.6) 17 (43.6) 1.23 (0.61, 2.47) 1.80 (0.84, 3.85) 1.52 (0.64, 3.60)
 Post-traumatic stress disorder 15 (11.3) 22 (20.0) 5 (12.8) 1.79 (0.74, 4.33) 1.13 (0.37, 3.44) 0.59 (0.18, 1.89)
 Alcohol abuse/dependence 5 (3.8) 12 (21.8) 12 (30.8) 7.68 (2.41, 24.44) 14.55 (4.37, 48.41) 2.05 (0.74, 5.70)
 Drug abuse/dependence 23 (17.3) 10 (18.2) 10 (25.6) 1.15 (0.49, 2.69) 1.67 (0.69, 4.06) 1.48 (0.53, 4.09)
Functional impairmentb     0.87 (0.45, 1.68)a 4.46 (1.80, 11.04) a 5.11 (1.91, 13.72) a
 Severe and very severe 67 (50.4) 26 (47.3) 32 (82.1)    
 Marked 45 (33.8) 18 (32.7) 7 (18.0)    
 None and mild 21 (15.8) 11 (20.0) 0    
Suicide actsc 23 (17.3) 16 (29.1) 14 (35.9) 1.72 (0.80, 3.70) 2.52 (1.10, 5.77) 1.39 (0.57, 3.40)
Auto-aggressive behaviorsd 41 (30.8) 15 (27.3) 18 (46.2) 0.81 (0.39, 1.67) 1.92 (0.89, 4.11) 2.18 (0.89, 5.37)
  1. AOR: odd ratio adjusted for age, gender, and eating disorder subtypes
  2. Values in bold type indicated statistically significant
  3. MDD major depressive disorder
  4. Impairments and suicide were assessed using the Structured Interview on Anorexic and Bulimic Disorder, Expert-Assessment (SIAB-EX)
  5. aPatients with severe and very severe impairments compared with all others
  6. b: rated by the Item 53 ‘Was your work performance objectively impaired at work or in your household ?”. Severity of impairment is rated from 0 (=no) to 4 (=very severe)
  7. c: rated by the item 69 ‘Did you ever attempt to commit suicide?’
  8. d: rated by the Item 70 ‘Did you ever hurt yourself intentionally?’. Severity of suicidal acts and auto-aggressive behaviors is rated from 0 (= symptom not present) to 4 (= symptom very much/very severely present) according to the number of attempts or seriousness of physical injury; here suicide acts indicated the severity more than one serious attempt or many minor attempts and auto-aggressive behaviors indicated the severity more than marked degree