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Table 2 Changes in clinical parameters between baseline and three years later in smokers and in non-smokers

From: Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients

  Smokers Non-smokers  
n = 38 n = 32
Baseline Three years Changes p Baseline Three years Changes P Comparison
ln total1 4.5 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.7 −0.50 ± 1.57 0.061 3.9 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.4 −0.11 ± 0.95 0.681 0.218
ln LF1 3.8 ± 1.3 3.0 ± 1.8 −0.79 ± 1.73 0.049* 3.2 ± 1.4 3.2 ± 1.5 −0.09 ± 0.96 0.715 0.133
ln HF1 3.8 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.7 −0.44 ± 1.67 0.136 3.1 ± 1.3 3.1 ± 1.5 −0.85 ± 1.17 0.915 0.304
BMI (kg/m2) 22.7 ± 4.0 21.1 ± 3.6 −1.56 ± 3.64 0.020* 21.7 ± 4.0 20.8 ± 3.9 −0.92 ± 2.17 0.022* 0.373
ALB (g/dL) 4.0 ± 0.3 3.9 ± 0.4 −0.03 ± 0.38 0.564 4.0 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.4 −0.15 ± 0.46 0.076 0.240
BS (mg/dL) 89.7 ± 17.4 87.6 ± 14.6 −1.7 ± 18.6 0.568 87.5 ± 15.5 87.7 ± 14.1 0.16 ± 16.2 0.957 0.654
LDL-C (mg/dL) 119.0 ± 33.2 115.6 ± 36.2 −2.3 ± 39.0 0.717 108.4 ± 29.6 110.2 ± 27.3 1.7 ± 29.2 0.740 0.631
TC (mg/dL) 200.4 ± 42.2 190.4 ± 42.2 −10.4 ± 52.1 0.291 183.9 ± 32.0 186.3 ± 35.1 2.4 ± 27.2 0.620 0.421
TG (mg/dL) 118.9 ± 91.1 100.0 ± 48.0 −18.9 ± 93.1 0.212 86.0 ± 43.2 96.1 ± 40.8 10.2 ± 46.2 0.223 0.096
HDL-C (mg/dL) 60.4 ± 16.6 70.3 ± 18.0 9.92 ± 18.2 0.002* 55.9 ± 13.2 64.0 ± 18.9 8.1 ± 13.5 0.002* 0.635
CPZeq2 (mg) 1229 ± 750 1008 ± 646 −221 ± 576 0.031* 1162 ± 792 1075 ± 810 −86.7 ± 489 0.323 0.302
BPDeq2 (mg) 2.9 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.7 −0.63 ± 1.7 0.018* 1.6 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.7 0.15 ± 1.8 0.623 0.061
DZPeq2 (mg) 10.1 ± 6.9 8.6 ± 6.9 −1.5 ± 6.4 0.190 9.3 ± 7.4 9.1 ± 7.4 −0.12 ± 6.6 0.914 0.379
GAF score 28.9 ± 3.1 27.9 ± 4.1 −1.1 ± 3.1 0.444 29.2 ± 2.2 29.4 ± 2.1 0.15 ± 1.5 0.572 0.040*
  1. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation
  2. *Significant difference p < 0.05
  3. 1Logarithmic conversion was performed
  4. 2The daily dose of antipsychotics was converted to the approximate respective equivalent dose
  5. LF Low frequency, HF High frequency, BMI Body mass index, ALB Albumin, BS Blood sugar, LDL-C Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC Total cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CPZeq Equivalent conversions of chlorpromazine, BDPeq Equivalent conversions of biperiden, DZP Equivalent conversions of diazepam, GAF Global Assessment of Functioning