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Table 1 Descriptive statistics. Percent (n in parentheses) and significance levels from chi-square tests

From: Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years

  Non-depressed controls (n = 155) Depressed (n = 227) χ 2 and p-value
Baseline
Sex
 Male 20.6 (32) 20.7 (47)  
 Female 79.4 (123) 79.3 (180) 0.00
Parental separation 27.1 (42) 41.4 (94) 8.23**
Major conflicts between parents 9.7 (15) 29.5 (67) 21.50***
Major conflicts with parents 5.2 (8) 27.3 (62) 30.20***
Family income considerably reduced 9.7 (15) 21.6 (49) 9.37**
Family moved to another city 29.0 (45) 35.2 (80) 1.61
Parental depressiona, b 25.8 (40) 37.5 (84) 5.69*
Follow-up
Major depression in adulthood 31.0 (48) 59.5 (135) 29.99***
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05
  2. aNon-depressed controls n = 155; depressed n = 224
  3. bQuestion posed at follow-up but is retrospective