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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of study populations aged 60-79 years. National Health Interview and Examination Surveys GNHIES98 (1997–99) and DEGS1 (2008–11)

From: Changes in prevalence of psychotropic drug use and alcohol consumption among the elderly in Germany: results of two National Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997-99 and 2008-11

  GNHIES98a (N = 1606) DEGS1a (N = 2501) P value
  n % 95% C n % 95% CI  
Sex
 Men 727 47.0 44.7 49.3 1227 46.9 44.5 49.3 .962
 Women 879 53.0 50.7 55.3 1274 53.1 50.7 55.5  
Age groups
 60–69 years 1031 52.5 49.9 55.1 1393 52.6 50.6 54.5 .970
 70–79 years 575 47.5 44.9 50.1 1108 47.4 45.5 49.4  
Living alone
 Yes 355 24.2 21.0 27.7 506 21.3 19.2 23.6 .084
 No 1174 75.8 72.3 79.0 1983 78.7 76.4 80.8  
Urbanityb
 Rural 382 19.9 13.2 29.0 428 16.3 11.0 23.6 .113
 Small city 333 18.9 12.4 27.8 586 25.6 19.0 33.6  
 Medium sized city 406 28.1 20.0 37.9 733 27.8 21.2 35.6  
 Large city 485 33.1 24.1 43.4 754 30.2 23.3 38.2  
Region of residencec
 Northern Germany 375 26.0 18.0 35.9 641 25.6 19.1 33.5 .979
 Central Germany 781 40.7 31.5 50.7 1137 41.4 33.6 49.6  
 Southern Germany 450 33.3 24.3 43.7 723 33.0 25.7 41.2  
Social status
 Lower 374 26.1 22.8 29.6 436 24.1 21.2 27.3 .393
 Middle 935 59.1 55.8 62.4 1489 59.3 56.3 62.3  
 Upper 233 14.8 12.1 17.9 562 16.5 14.6 18.7  
Officially certified disability
 Yes 371 26.0 23.3 29.0 647 29.1 26.4 31.9 .079
 No 1168 74.0 71.0 76.7 1797 70.9 68.1 73.6  
Self-assed health status
 Better 781 47.8 44.4 51.1 1498 58.1 55.5 60.7 <.0001
 Worse 825 52.2 48.9 55.6 985 41.9 39.3 44.5  
Polypharmacyd
 Yes 466 30.0 27.1 33.0 993 38.8 36.5 41.2 <.0001
 No 1140 70.0 67.0 72.9 1508 61.2 58.8 63.5  
  1. a Standardized to the population of 1.12.2010
  2. b Urbanity: Rural (<5000 residents), small city (5000 - <20.000), medium sized city (20.000 - <100.000), large city (100.000 and more residents)
  3. c Regions: Northern Germany (federal states: Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schleswig-Holstein), Central Germany (Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia), Southern Germany (Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland)
  4. d Polypharmacy: Use of five or more different prescribed and OTC drugs (excluding psychotropics) in the last seven days
  5. Missing values: Living alone (GNHIES98 n = 77, DEGS1 n = 12), social status (64, 14), officially certified disability (67, 57), self-assed health status (0, 18)
  6. Figures in bold denote statistical significance