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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis of adverse childhood experiences, trusted adult support in childhood, demographics and their associations with health-harming behaviours and mental well-being in adulthood

From: Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences - a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being

  Daily smoking 95% CIs ≤1 Portion fruit and veg/day 95% CIs Weekly heavy drinking 95% CIs ≥2 Health- harming behaviours 95% CIs Lower mental well-being 95% CIs
AOR Low High P AOR Low High P AOR Low High P AOR Low High P AOR Low High P
£AAA support in childhood * ACEs
 Yes 0 Ref    <0.001     <0.001     <0.001     <0.001     <0.001
1 1.26 0.98 1.63 0.068 1.26 0.93 1.69 0.133 1.69 1.22 2.35 0.002 1.54 1.07 2.19 0.019 1.32 0.96 1.81 0.083
2–3 1.65 1.26 2.17 <0.001 1.43 1.03 1.98 0.035 1.08 0.71 1.64 0.720 1.52 1.01 2.29 0.045 1.79 1.28 2.49 <0.001
4+ 4.04 2.84 5.74 <0.001 1.09 0.63 1.89 0.754 1.70 0.97 3.00 0.066 1.72 0.94 3.13 0.078 3.27 2.16 4.96 <0.001
 No 0 1.23 1.02 1.48 0.032 1.36 1.10 1.68 0.004 0.89 0.67 1.17 0.392 1.15 0.87 1.53 0.325 2.44 1.98 3.01 <0.001
1 1.58 1.23 2.01 <0.001 1.86 1.42 2.45 <0.001 0.94 0.64 1.38 0.748 1.67 1.17 2.39 0.005 2.95 2.27 3.83 <0.001
2–3 1.96 1.55 2.47 <0.001 1.60 1.21 2.12 0.001 1.83 1.33 2.53 <0.001 2.28 1.63 3.17 <0.001 3.69 2.86 4.76 <0.001
4+ 5.16 4.14 6.44 <0.001 3.21 2.49 4.14 <0.001 2.72 2.01 3.69 <0.001 6.16 4.61 8.24 <0.001 8.32 6.53 10.61 <0.001
UK region Luton Wales     0.109     <0.001     <0.001     <0.001     0.035
0.80 0.65 0.98 0.030 1.86 1.47 2.35 <0.001 1.80 1.30 2.50 <0.001 1.50 1.13 1.99 0.005 1.28 1.03 1.59 0.026
Hertfordshire 0.88 0.72 1.09 0.241 0.98 0.77 1.26 0.877 1.23 0.87 1.74 0.237 0.94 0.70 1.28 0.712 1.01 0.81 1.26 0.920
Northamptonshire 0.80 0.64 0.99 0.040 0.89 0.68 1.17 0.412 0.91 0.62 1.31 0.602 0.62 0.44 0.87 0.005 1.07 0.84 1.35 0.600
Deprivation quintile Affluent 1     <0.001     <0.001     0.093     <0.001     <0.001
2 1.39 1.14 1.70 0.001 1.28 1.01 1.61 0.041 0.79 0.60 1.05 0.110 1.30 0.96 1.75 0.086 1.42 1.15 1.76 0.001
3 1.66 1.37 2.02 <0.001 1.57 1.26 1.97 <0.001 1.05 0.80 1.37 0.732 1.96 1.48 2.58 <0.001 1.64 1.33 2.03 <0.001
4 1.67 1.37 2.04 <0.001 1.60 1.27 2.01 <0.001 1.21 0.92 1.59 0.175 1.83 1.37 2.44 <0.001 1.67 1.35 2.07 <0.001
Deprived 5 3.06 2.46 3.81 <0.001 1.52 1.17 1.96 0.002 1.12 0.82 1.53 0.490 2.45 1.80 3.33 <0.001 1.98 1.56 2.52 <0.001
Age 18–29     <0.001     <0.001     <0.001     <0.001     0.789
category 30–39 0.82 0.68 0.98 0.030 0.50 0.40 0.62 <0.001 0.65 0.50 0.86 0.002 0.49 0.38 0.63 <0.001 1.08 0.88 1.32 0.465
(years) 40–49 0.66 0.55 0.80 <0.001 0.64 0.52 0.79 <0.001 0.68 0.53 0.88 0.004 0.46 0.36 0.60 <0.001 0.97 0.79 1.19 0.748
50–59 0.84 0.69 1.01 0.065 0.61 0.49 0.76 <0.001 0.70 0.53 0.91 0.007 0.53 0.40 0.68 <0.001 1.09 0.88 1.35 0.437
60–69 0.34 0.28 0.43 <0.001 0.50 0.40 0.62 <0.001 0.29 0.21 0.40 <0.001 0.24 0.18 0.33 <0.001 1.01 0.82 1.25 0.912
Sex$ Male 1.79 1.58 2.04 <0.001 1.96 1.69 2.28 <0.001 3.39 2.78 4.13 <0.001 2.79 2.31 3.37 <0.001 1.01 0.88 1.15 0.923
Ethnicity$ Other 0.29 0.23 0.37 <0.001 0.88 0.70 1.12 0.307 0.16 0.10 0.27 <0.001 0.35 0.25 0.50 <0.001 0.77 0.62 0.96 0.019
  1. AAA Always Available Adult support from someone trusted in childhood, ACE Adverse Childhood Experiences, 95%CIs 95% Confidence Intervals, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, Ref Reference category and P values appearing in reference rows relate to testing of the overall contribution of each variable to the model. £Combined interaction variable between trusted adult support in childhood and ACEs. $For binary variables reference categories are female (for sex) and white (for ethnicity). Interactions between sex and the AAA support in childhood*ACEs variable were included in all models but did not reach significance in any of the models (daily smoking, P = 0.199; ≤1 portion of fruit and veg/day, P = 0.107; weekly heavy drinking, P = 0.472; ≥2 Health-harming behaviours, P = 0.211; lower mental well-being, P = 0.746)