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Table 3 Multinomial regression analysis of impact of adversity, trusted adult support in childhood and deprivation on relationships between health-harming behaviours and mental well-being in adulthood

From: Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences - a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being

    ≥2 Health-harming behaviours good mental well-being 95% CIs ≤1 Health-harming behaviours lower mental well-being 95% CIs ≥2 Health-harming behaviours lower mental well-being 95% CIs
   Ref Cat£ AOR Low High P AOR Low High P AOR Low High P
Support in childhood £AAA*ACES
 Yes 0 <0.001 1.40 0.94 2.09 0.098 1.21 0.86 1.72 0.273 2.36 1.12 4.97 0.024
2–3   1.18 0.72 1.92 0.519 1.55 1.07 2.25 0.020 3.73 1.76 7.90 <0.001
4+   1.47 0.71 3.05 0.297 3.17 2.03 4.94 <0.001 4.71 1.68 13.23 0.003
 No 0   1.10 0.80 1.51 0.542 2.50 2.00 3.12 <0.001 2.18 1.19 3.99 0.012
1   1.62 1.08 2.44 0.021 2.99 2.26 3.95 <0.001 3.46 1.71 7.02 <0.001
2–3   1.87 1.25 2.79 0.002 3.46 2.63 4.56 <0.001 6.91 3.70 12.94 <0.001
4+   4.47 3.11 6.43 <0.001 7.02 5.33 9.25 <0.001 32.01 18.31 55.98 <0.001
UK region Luton <0.001             
Wales   1.54 1.09 2.16 0.013 1.27 1.00 1.61 0.054 1.60 1.01 2.53 0.046
Hertfordshire   1.02 0.71 1.47 0.919 1.06 0.83 1.34 0.662 0.84 0.51 1.38 0.481
Northamptonshire   0.63 0.42 0.96 0.030 1.13 0.88 1.46 0.332 0.63 0.36 1.10 0.103
Deprivation quintile Affluent 1 <0.001             
2   1.26 0.88 1.79 0.202 1.41 1.12 1.77 0.003 1.64 0.98 2.75 0.058
3   1.63 1.16 2.28 0.005 1.47 1.17 1.85 <0.001 3.36 2.12 5.33 <0.001
4   1.82 1.29 2.56 <0.001 1.65 1.31 2.08 <0.001 2.45 1.50 4.00 <0.001
Deprived 5   2.73 1.90 3.91 <0.001 2.07 1.60 2.68 <0.001 3.02 1.79 5.07 <0.001
Age 18–29 <0.001            
category 30–39   0.37 0.27 0.52 <0.001 1.03 0.82 1.29 0.817 0.81 0.54 1.21 0.301
(years) 40–49   0.39 0.29 0.54 <0.001 0.95 0.76 1.20 0.673 0.64 0.42 0.97 0.036
50–59   0.51 0.38 0.69 <0.001 1.13 0.90 1.43 0.301 0.59 0.38 0.94 0.027
60–69   0.19 0.13 0.28 <0.001 1.03 0.82 1.30 0.801 0.40 0.24 0.66 <0.001
Sex$ Male <0.001 2.68 2.13 3.36 <0.001 0.15 0.90 0.77 1.041 2.83 2.08 3.85 <0.001
Ethnicity$ Other <0.001 0.34 0.22 0.52 <0.001 0.08 0.81 0.64 1.022 0.33 0.18 0.60 <0.001
  1. ACE Adverse Childhood Experiences. £ Ref Cat Reference category for dependent variable was ≤1 Health-harming behaviours and good mental well-being. P values in the Ref Cat column refer to the overall contribution on that variable to the model. 95% CIs 95% Confidence Intervals, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio. $For binary variables reference categories are female (for sex) and white (for ethnicity). $AAA, Always Available Adult support from someone trusted in childhood. AAA*ACE is a combined interaction variable between continuous trusted adult support and ACEs. An interaction between sex and the AAA support in childhood*ACEs variable was included in the model but did not reach significance (P = 0.394)